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X-PSI simulates rotationally-modified (pulsed) surface X-ray emission from neutron stars, taking into account relativistic effects on the emitted radiation. This can then be used to perform Bayesian statistical inference on real or simulated astronomical data sets. Model parameters of interest may include neutron star mass and radius (useful to constrain the properties of ultradense nuclear matter) or the system geometry and properties of the hot emitting surface-regions. To achieve this, X-PSI couples code for likelihood functionality (simulation) with existing open-source software for posterior sampling (inference).