PyWST performs statistical analyses of two-dimensional data with the Wavelet Scattering Transform (WST) and the Reduced Wavelet Scattering Transform (RWST). The WST/RWST provides convenient sets of coefficients for describing non-Gaussian data in a comprehensive way.
PyXel models astronomical X-ray imaging data; it provides a common set of image analysis tools for astronomers working with extended X-ray sources. PyXel can model surface brightness profiles from X-ray satellites using a variety of models and statistics. PyXel can, for example, fit a broken power-law model to a surface brightness profile, and fit a constant to the sky background level in the direction of the merging galaxy cluster.
pyXSIM simulates X-ray observations from astrophysical sources. X-rays probe the high-energy universe, from hot galaxy clusters to compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes and many interesting sources in between. pyXSIM generates synthetic X-ray observations of these sources from a wide variety of models, whether from grid-based simulation codes such as FLASH (ascl:1010.082), Enzo (ascl:1010.072), and Athena (ascl:1010.014), to particle-based codes such as Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO (ascl:1909.010), and even from datasets that have been created “by hand”, such as from NumPy arrays. pyXSIM can also manipulate the synthetic observations it produces in various ways and export the simulated X-ray events to other software packages to simulate the end products of specific X-ray observatories. pyXSIM is an implementation of the PHOX (ascl:1112.004) algorithm and was initially the photon_simulator analysis module in yt (ascl:1011.022); it is dependent on yt.
pyZELDA analyzes data from Zernike wavefront sensors dedicated to high-contrast imaging applications. This modular software was originally designed to analyze data from the ZELDA wavefront sensor prototype installed in VLT/SPHERE; simple configuration files allow it to be extended to support several other instruments and testbeds. pyZELDA also includes simple simulation tools to measure the theoretical sensitivity of a sensor and to compare it to other sensors.
Q3C (Quad Tree Cube) enables fast cone, ellipse and polygonal searches and cross-matches between large astronomical catalogs inside a PostgreSQL database. The package supports searches even if objects have proper motions.
QAC (Quick Array Combinations) is a front end to CASA (ascl:1107.013) and calls tools and tasks to help in combining data from a single dish and interferometer. QAC hides some of the complexity of writing CASA scripts and provide a simple interface to array combination tools and tasks in CASA. This project was conceived alongside the TP2VIS (ascl:1904.021) project, where it was used to provide an easier way to call CASA and perform regression tests.
QATS detects transiting extrasolar planets in time-series photometry. It relaxes the usual assumption of strictly periodic transits by permitting a variable, but bounded, interval between successive transits.
QDPHOT is a fast CCD stellar photometry task which quickly produces CCD stellar photometry from two CCD images of a star field. It was designed to be a data mining tool for finding high-quality stellar observations in the data archives of the National Virtual Observatory. QDPHOT typically takes just a few seconds to analyze two Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 observations of Local Group star clusters. It is also suitable for real-time data-quality analysis of CCD observations; on-the-fly instrumental color-magnitude diagrams can be produced at the telescope console during the few seconds between CCD readouts.
Quantum ESPRESSO (opEn-Source Package for Research in Electronic Structure, Simulation, and Optimization) is an integrated suite of codes for electronic-structure calculations and materials modeling at the nanoscale. It is based on density-functional theory, plane waves, and pseudopotentials. QE performs ground-state calculations such as self-consistent total energies, forces, stresses and Kohn-Sham orbitals, Car-Parrinello and Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, and quantum transport such as ballistic transport, coherent transport from maximally localized Wannier functions, and Kubo-Greenwood electrical conductivity. It can also determine spectroscopic properties and examine time-dependent density functional perturbations and electronic excitations, and has a wide range of other functions.
QFitsView is a FITS file viewer that can display one, two, and three-dimensional FITS files. It has three modes of operation, depending of what kind of data is being displayed. One-dimensional data are shown in an x-y plot. Two-dimensional images are shown in the main window. Three-dimensional data cubes can be displayed in a variety of ways, with the third dimension shown as a x-y plot at the bottom of the image display. QFitsView was written in C++ and uses the Qt widget library, which makes it available for all major platforms: Windows, MAC OS X, and many Unix variants.
Qhull computes the convex hull, Delaunay triangulation, Voronoi diagram, halfspace intersection about a point, furthest-site Delaunay triangulation, and furthest-site Voronoi diagram. The source code runs in 2-d, 3-d, 4-d, and higher dimensions. Qhull implements the Quickhull algorithm for computing the convex hull. It handles roundoff errors from floating point arithmetic. It computes volumes, surface areas, and approximations to the convex hull.
QLF derives full posterior distributions for and analyzes luminosity functions models; it also models hydrogen and helium reionization. Used with the included homogenized data, the derived luminosity functions can be easily compared with theoretical models or future data sets.
qnm computes the Kerr quasinormal mode frequencies, angular separation constants, and spherical-spheroidal mixing coefficients. The qnm package includes a Leaver solver with the Cook-Zalutskiy spectral approach to the angular sector, and a caching mechanism to avoid repeating calculations. A large cache of low ℓ, m, n modes is available for download and can be installed with a single function call and interpolated to provide good initial guess for root-polishing at new values of spin.
qp manipulates parametrizations of 1-dimensional probability distribution functions, as suitable for photo-z PDF compression. The code helps determine a parameterization for storing a catalog of photo-z PDFs that balances the available storage resources against the accuracy of the photo-z PDFs and science products reconstructed from the stored parameters.
QSFit performs automatic analysis of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) optical spectra. It provides estimates of: AGN continuum luminosities and slopes at several restframe wavelengths; luminosities, widths and velocity offsets of 20 emission lines; luminosities of iron blended lines at optical and UV wavelengths; host galaxy luminosities. The whole fitting process is customizable for specific needs, and can be extended to analyze spectra from other data sources. The ultimate purpose of QSFit is to allow astronomers to run standardized recipes to analyze the AGN data, in a simple, replicable and shareable way.
QSOSIM realistically simulates high-resolution quasar spectra using a set of basic parameters (magnitude, redshift, and spectral index). The simulated spectra include physical effects seen in the real data: the power-law quasar continuum, the narrow and broad emission lines, absorption by neutral hydrogen (HI) in the Lyman alpha forest, and heavy element transitions along the line of sight. The code uses empirical HI column density, redshift, and b-parameter distributions to simulate absorption in the Lyman alpha forest. All absorbers with column densities larger than log [N(HI)/cm2]>17 have heavy element absorption, for which the column densities are calculated using the plasma simulation code CLOUDY (ascl:9910.001) and the radiative transfer code CUBA. The code also simulates the clustering of the intergalactic medium along the line of sight, the proximity effect of the quasar, and the effect of the cosmic ultraviolet background. Each simulated spectrum is saved in a single FITS file in as a noiseless R=100000 spectrum, as well as a spectrum convolved with Sloan Digital Sky Survey resolution (R=10000) and realistic noise.
QtClassify is a GUI that helps classify emission lines found in integral field spectroscopic data. Input needed is a datacube as well as a catalog with emission lines and a signal-to-noise cube, such at that created by LSDCat (ascl:1612.002). The main idea is to take each detected line and guess what line it could be (and thus the redshift of the object). You would expect to see other lines that might not have been detected but are visible in the cube if you know where to look, which is why parts of the spectrum are shown where other lines are expected. In addition, monochromatic layers of the datacube are displayed, making it easy to spot additional emission lines.
qubefit fits an observed data cube to generate a model cube from a user-defined emission model. The model cube is convolved with the observed beam, after which residuals between the convolved model and the observed data cube are minimized using a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. qubefit also determines estimates of the uncertainty for each parameter of the model.
Quickclump finds clumps in a 3D FITS datacube. It is a fast, accurate, and automated tool written in Python. Though Quickclump is primarily intended for decomposing observations of interstellar clouds into individual clumps, it can also be used for finding clumps in any 3D rectangular data.
QUICKCV is an IDL sample variance/cosmic variance calculator for some geometry for galaxies in given stellar mass bins as a function of mean redshift and redshift bin size.
QuickReduce quickly reduces data for ODI and is optimized for a first data inspection during acquisition at the the telescope. When installed on the ODI observer's interface, QuickReduce, coded in Python, performs all basic reduction steps as well as more advanced corrections for pupil-ghost removal, fringe correction and masking of persistent pixels and is capable enough for science-quality data reductions. It can also add an accurate astrometric WCS solution based on the 2MASS reference system as well as photometric zeropoint calibration for frames covered by the SDSS foot-print. The pipeline makes use of multiple CPU-cores wherever possible, resulting in an execution time of only a few seconds per frame, thus offering the ODI observer a convenient way to closely monitor data quality.
QuickSip quickly projects Survey Image Properties (e.g. seeing, sky noise, airmass) into Healpix sky maps with flexible weighting schemes. It was initially designed to produce observing condition "systematics" maps for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), but will work with any multi-epoch survey and images with valid WCS. QuickSip can reproduce the Mangle (ascl:1202.005) magnitude limit maps at sub-percent accuracy but doesn't support additional masks (stars, trails, etc), in which case Mangle should be used. Thus, QuickSip can be seen as a simplified Mangle to project image properties into Healpix maps in a fast and more flexible manner.
QYMSYM is a GPU accelerated 2nd order hybrid symplectic integrator that identifies close approaches between particles and switches from symplectic to Hermite algorithms for particles that require higher resolution integrations. This is a parallel code running with CUDA on a video card that puts the many processors on board to work while taking advantage of fast shared memory.
r-Java performs r-process nucleosynthesis calculations. It has a simple graphical user interface and is carries out nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) as well as static and dynamic r-process calculations for a wide range of input parameters. r-Java generates an abundance pattern based on a general entropy expression that can be applied to degenerate as well as non-degenerate matter, which allows tracking of the rapid density and temperature evolution of the ejecta during the initial stages of ejecta expansion.
R3D was developed to reduce fiber-based integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data. The package comprises a set of command-line routines adapted for each of these steps, suitable for creating pipelines. The routines have been tested against simulations, and against real data from various integral field spectrographs (PMAS, PPAK, GMOS, VIMOS and INTEGRAL). Particular attention is paid to the treatment of cross-talk.
R3D unifies the reduction techniques for the different IFS instruments to a single one, in order to allow the general public to reduce different instruments data in an homogeneus, consistent and simple way. Although still in its prototyping phase, it has been proved to be useful to reduce PMAS (both in the Larr and the PPAK modes), VIMOS and INTEGRAL data. The current version has been coded in Perl, using PDL, in order to speed-up the algorithm testing phase. Most of the time critical algorithms have been translated to C, and it is our intention to translate all of them. However, even in this phase R3D is fast enough to produce valuable science frames in reasonable time.
Rabacus performs analytic radiative transfer calculations in simple geometries relevant to cosmology and astrophysics; it also contains tools to calculate cosmological quantities such as the power spectrum and mass function. With core routines written in Fortran 90 and then wrapped in Python, the execution speed is thousands of times faster than equivalent routines written in pure Python.
rec-2d models the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks. Given a distribution of gas and dust, rac-2d first solves the dust temperature distribution with a Monte Carlo method and then solves the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. Although the geometry is symmetric with respect to rotation around the central axis and reflection about the midplane, the photon propagation is done in full three dimensions. After establishing the dust temperature distribution, the disk chemistry is evolved for 1 Myr; the heating and cooling processes are coupled with chemistry, allowing the gas temperature to be evolved in tandem with chemistry based on the heating and cooling rates.
The large quantity and high quality of modern radio and infrared line observations require efficient modeling techniques to infer physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, density, and molecular abundances. Radex calculates the intensities of atomic and molecular lines produced in a uniform medium, based on statistical equilibrium calculations involving collisional and radiative processes and including radiation from background sources. Optical depth effects are treated with an escape probability method. The program makes use of molecular data files maintained in the Leiden Atomic and Molecular Database (LAMDA), which will continue to be improved and expanded. The performance of the program is compared with more approximate and with more sophisticated methods. An Appendix provides diagnostic plots to estimate physical parameters from line intensity ratios of commonly observed molecules. This program should form an important tool in analyzing observations from current and future radio and infrared telescopes.
RadFil is a radial density profile building and fitting tool for interstellar filaments. The software uses an image array and (in most cases) a boolean mask array that delineates the boundary of the filament to build and fit a radial density profile for the filaments.
RADICAL is a multi-purpose 2-D radiative transfer code for axi-symmetric circumstellar (or circum-black-hole) envelopes /disks / tori etc. It has been extensively tested and found reliable and accurate. The code has recently been supplemented with a Variable Eddington Tensor module which enables it to solve dust continuum radiative transfer problems from very low up to extremely high optical depths with only a few (about 7) iterations at most.
RADLite is a raytracer that is optimized for producing infrared line spectra and images from axisymmetric density structures, originally developed to function on top of the dust radiative transfer code RADMC. RADLite can consistently deal with a wide range of velocity gradients, such as those typical for the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. The code is intended as a back-end for chemical and excitation codes, and can rapidly produce spectra of thousands of lines for grids of models for comparison with observations. It includes functionality for simulating telescopic images for optical/IR/midIR/farIR telescopes. It takes advantage of multi-threaded CPUs and includes an escape-probability non-LTE module.
RADMC-3D is a software package for astrophysical radiative transfer calculations in arbitrary 1-D, 2-D or 3-D geometries. It is mainly written for continuum radiative transfer in dusty media, but also includes modules for gas line transfer and gas continuum transfer. RADMC-3D is a new incarnation of the older software package RADMC (ascl:1108.016).
RADMC is a 2-D Monte-Carlo code for dust continuum radiative transfer circumstellar disks and envelopes. It is based on the method of Bjorkman & Wood (ApJ 2001, 554, 615), but with several modifications to produce smoother results with fewer photon packages.
radon performs a Fast Radon Transform (FRT) on image data for streak detection. The software finds short streaks and multiple streaks, convolves the images with a given PSF, and tracks the best S/N results and find a automatic threshold. It also calculates the streak parameters in the input image and the streak parameters in the input image. radon has a simulator that can make multiple streaks of different intensities and coordinates, and can simulate random streaks with parameters chosen uniformly in a user-defined range.
The RADPACK package, written in IDL, contains both data and software. The data are the constraints on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) angular power spectrum from all published data as of 9/99. A unique aspect of this compilation is that the non-Gaussianity of the uncertainties has been characterized. The most important program in the package, written in the IDL language, is called chisq.pro and calculates $chi^2$, for an input power spectrum, according to the offset log-normal form of Bond, Jaffe and Knox (astro-ph/9808264). chisq.pro also outputs files that are useful for examining the residuals (the difference between the predictions of the model and the data). There is an sm macro for plotting up the residuals, and a histogram of the residuals. The histogram is actually for the 'whitenend' residuals ---a linear combination of the residuals which leaves them uncorrelated and with unit variance. The expectation is that the whitened residuals will be distributed as a Gaussian with unit variance.
RadVel models Keplerian orbits in radial velocity (RV) time series. The code is written in Python with a fast Kepler's equation solver written in C. It provides a framework for fitting RVs using maximum a posteriori optimization and computing robust confidence intervals by sampling the posterior probability density via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC). RadVel can perform Bayesian model comparison and produces publication quality plots and LaTeX tables.
Radynversion infers solar atmospheric properties during a solar flare. The code is based on an Invertible Neural Network (INN) that is trained to learn an approximate bijective mapping between the atmospheric properties of electron density, temperature, and bulk velocity (all as a function of altitude), and the observed Hα and Ca II λ8542 line profiles. As information is lost in the forward process of radiation transfer, this information is injected back into the model during the inverse process by means of a latent space; the training allows this latent space to be filled using an n-dimensional unit Gaussian distribution, where n is the dimensionality of the latent space. The code is based on a model trained by simulations made by RADYN, a 1D non-equilibrium radiation hydrodynamic model with good optically thick radiation treatment that does not consider magnetic effects.
Raga (Relaxation in Any Geometry) is a Monte Carlo simulation method for gravitational dynamics of non-spherical stellar systems. It is based on the SMILE software (ascl:1308.001) for orbit analysis. It can simulate stellar systems with a much smaller number of particles N than the number of stars in the actual system, represent an arbitrary non-spherical potential with a basis-set or spline spherical-harmonic expansion with the coefficients of expansion computed from particle trajectories, and compute particle trajectories independently and in parallel using a high-accuracy adaptive-timestep integrator. Raga can also model two-body relaxation by local (position-dependent) velocity diffusion coefficients (as in Spitzer's Monte Carlo formulation) and adjust the magnitude of relaxation to the actual number of stars in the target system, and model the effect of a central massive black hole.
RamsesGPU is a reimplementation of RAMSES (ascl:1011.007) which drops the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) features to optimize 3D uniform grid algorithms for modern graphics processor units (GPU) to provide an efficient software package for astrophysics applications that do not need AMR features but do require a very large number of integration time steps. RamsesGPU provides an very efficient C++/CUDA/MPI software implementation of a second order MUSCL-Handcock finite volume fluid solver for compressible hydrodynamics as a magnetohydrodynamics solver based on the constraint transport technique. Other useful modules includes static gravity, dissipative terms (viscosity, resistivity), and forcing source term for turbulence studies, and special care was taken to enhance parallel input/output performance by using state-of-the-art libraries such as HDF5 and parallel-netcdf.
A new N-body and hydrodynamical code, called RAMSES, is presented. It has been designed to study structure formation in the universe with high spatial resolution. The code is based on Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) technique, with a tree based data structure allowing recursive grid refinements on a cell-by-cell basis. The N-body solver is very similar to the one developed for the ART code (Kravtsov et al. 97), with minor differences in the exact implementation. The hydrodynamical solver is based on a second-order Godunov method, a modern shock-capturing scheme known to compute accurately the thermal history of the fluid component. The accuracy of the code is carefully estimated using various test cases, from pure gas dynamical tests to cosmological ones. The specific refinement strategy used in cosmological simulations is described, and potential spurious effects associated to shock waves propagation in the resulting AMR grid are discussed and found to be negligible. Results obtained in a large N-body and hydrodynamical simulation of structure formation in a low density LCDM universe are finally reported, with 256^3 particles and 4.1 10^7 cells in the AMR grid, reaching a formal resolution of 8192^3. A convergence analysis of different quantities, such as dark matter density power spectrum, gas pressure power spectrum and individual haloes temperature profiles, shows that numerical results are converging down to the actual resolution limit of the code, and are well reproduced by recent analytical predictions in the framework of the halo model.
RAPID (Real-time Automated Photometric IDentification) classifies multiband photometric light curves into several different transient classes. It uses a deep recurrent neural network to produce time-varying classifications, and because it does not rely on deriving computationally expensive features from the data, it is well suited for processing alerts that wide-field surveys such as the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will produce.
RAPP is a robust automated photometry pipeline for blurred images. RAPP requires that the observed images contain at least three stars and applies bias, dark, and flat field correction on blurred observational raw data; it also uses the median of adjacent pixels to eliminate outliers. It also uses star enhancement and robust image matching, extracts stars, and performs aperture photometry to extract information from blurred images.
RAPTOR produces accurate images, animations, and spectra of relativistic plasmas in strong gravity by numerically integrating the equations of motion of light rays and performing time-dependent radiative transfer calculations along the rays. The code is compatible with any analytical or numerical spacetime, is hardware-agnostic and may be compiled and run on both GPUs and CPUs. RAPTOR is useful for studying accretion models of supermassive black holes, performing time-dependent radiative transfer through general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamical (GRMHD) simulations and investigating the expected observational differences between the so-called fastlight and slow-light paradigms.
RascalC quickly estimates covariance matrices from two- or three-point galaxy correlation functions. Given an input set of random particle locations and a two-point correlation function (or input set of galaxy positions), RascalC produces an estimate of the associated covariance for a given binning strategy, with non-Gaussianities approximated by a ‘shot-noise-rescaling’ parameter. For the 2PCF, the rescaling parameter can be calibrated by dividing the particles into jackknife regions and comparing sample to theoretical jackknife covariance. RascalC can also be used to compute Legendre-binned covariances and cross-covariances between different two-point correlation functions.
The massively parallel code RASCAS (RAdiative SCattering in Astrophysical Simulations) performs radiative transfer on an adaptive mesh with an octree structure using the Monte Carlo technique. The code features full MPI parallelization, domain decomposition, adaptive load-balancing, and a standard peeling algorithm to construct mock observations. The radiative transport of resonant line photons through different mixes of species (e.g. HI, SiII, MgII, FeII), including their interaction with dust, is implemented in a modular fashion to allow new transitions to be easily added to the code. RASCAS may also be used to propagate photons at any wavelength (e.g. stellar continuum or fluorescent lines), and has been designed to be easily customizable and to process simulations of arbitrarily large sizes on large supercomputers.
rate computes thermochemical-equilibrium abundances for a H-C-N-O system with known pressure, temperature, and elemental abundances. The output abundances are H2O, CH4, CO, CO2, NH3, C2H2, C2H4, HCN, and N2, H2, H, and He.
RATRAN is a numerical method and computer code to calculate the radiative transfer and excitation of molecular lines. The approach is based on the Monte Carlo method, and incorporates elements from Accelerated Lambda Iteration. It combines the flexibility of the former with the speed and accuracy of the latter. Convergence problems known to plague Monte Carlo methods at large optical depth (>100) are avoided by separating local contributions to the radiation field from the overall transfer problem. The random nature of the Monte Carlo method serves to verify the independence of the solution to the angular, spatial, and frequency sampling of the radiation field. This allows the method to be used in a wide variety of astrophysical problems without specific adaptations. Moreover, the code can be applied to all atoms or molecules for which collisional rate coefficients are available and any axially symmetric source model. Continuum emission and absorption by dust is explicitly taken into account but scattering is neglected. We expect this program to be an important tool in analyzing data from present and future infrared and (sub-)millimeter telescopes.
Time-distance helioseismology aims to measure and interpret the travel times of waves propagating between two points located on the solar surface. The travel times are then inverted to infer sub-surface properties that are encoded in the measurements. The trajectory of the waves generally follows that of the infinite-frequency ray path, although they are sensitive to perturbations off of this path. Finite-frequency sensitivity kernels are thus needed to give more accurate inversion results.
Ray tracing codes calculate travel time kernels for a ray. There are three main codes which calculate the group time as a function of distance, the ray paths as well as the phase and group times along the path, and the ray kernels for the sound speed squared.
The RC3 mosaicking pipeline creates color composite images and scientifically-calibrated FITS mosaics in all SDSS imaging bands for all the RC3 galaxies that lie within the survey’s footprint and on photographic plates taken by the Digitized Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS) for the B, R, IR bands. The pipeline uses SExtractor (ascl:1010.064) for extraction and STIFF (ascl:1110.006) to generating color images. The mosaicking program uses a recursive algorithm for positional update first to correct the positional inaccuracy inherent in the RC3 catalog, then conducts the mosaicking procedure using the Astropy (ascl:1304.002) wrapper to IPAC's Montage (ascl:1010.036) software. The program is generalized into a pipeline that can be easily extended to future survey data or other source catalogs; an online interface is available at
rcosmo provides information processing, visualization, manipulation and spatial statistical analysis of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation and other spherical data stored in or converted to HEALPix coordinates. The package has more than 100 different functions, and can perform spherical geometry, manipulate CMB and other spherical data, and visualize HEALPix data. rcosmo can also perform statistical analysis of CMB and spherical data, and transforme spherical data in cartesian and geographic coordinates into HEALPix format.
RDGEN is a collection of routines for data handling, display, and adjusting, with a facility which helps to set up files for using with VPFIT (ascl:1408.015); it is included in the VPFIT distribution file. It is useful for setting region boundaries and initial guesses for VPFIT, for displaying the accumulated results, for examining by eye particular redshift systems and fits to them, testing that the error array is a true reflection of the rms scatter in the data, comparing spectra and generally examining and even modifying the data.
ReadPDS reads in and visualizes data from the Planetary Data System in PDS4 format. Tools are available in Python as PDS4Viewer and in IDL as PDS4-IDL. These tools support PDS4 data, including images, spectra, and arrays and provide multiple views of the data, including summary, image, plot, and table views in addition to easy access to metadata such as structure labels and spectral characteristics.
REALMAF is a maximum-a-posteriori code to measure magnetic power spectra from Faraday rotation data. It uses a sophisticated model for the magnetic autocorrelation in real space, thus alleviating the need for simplifying assumptions in the processing. REALMAF treats the divergence relation of the magnetic field with a multiplicative factor in Fourier space, which allows modeling the magnetic autocorrelation as a spherically symmetric function.
The freely available Monte Carlo code REAS for modelling radio emission from cosmic ray air showers has evolved to include the full complexity of air shower physics. REAS3 improves the calculation of the emission contributions, which was not fully consistent in earlier versions of REAS, by incorporating the missing radio emission due to the variation of the number of charged particles during the air shower evolution using an "end-point formalism". With the inclusion of these emission contributions, the structure of the simulated radio pulses changes from unipolar to bipolar, and the azimuthal emission pattern becomes nearly symmetric. Remaining asymmetries can be explained by radio emission due to the variation of the net charge excess in air showers, which is automatically taken into account in the new implementation. REAS3 constitutes the first self-consistent time-domain implementation based on single particle emission taking the full complexity of air shower physics into account, and is freely available for all interested users. REAS3 has been superseded by CoREAS (ascl:1406.003).
REBOUND is a multi-purpose N-body code which is freely available under an open-source license. It was designed for collisional dynamics such as planetary rings but can also solve the classical N-body problem. It is highly modular and can be customized easily to work on a wide variety of different problems in astrophysics and beyond.
REBOUND comes with three symplectic integrators: leap-frog, the symplectic epicycle integrator (SEI) and a Wisdom-Holman mapping (WH). It supports open, periodic and shearing-sheet boundary conditions. REBOUND can use a Barnes-Hut tree to calculate both self-gravity and collisions. These modules are fully parallelized with MPI as well as OpenMP. The former makes use of a static domain decomposition and a distributed essential tree. Two new collision detection modules based on a plane-sweep algorithm are also implemented. The performance of the plane-sweep algorithm is superior to a tree code for simulations in which one dimension is much longer than the other two and in simulations which are quasi-two dimensional with less than one million particles.
REBOUNDx incorporates additional physics into REBOUND (ascl:1110.016) simulations. Users can add effects from a list of pre-implemented astrophysical forces or contribute new ones. The main code is written in C, and a Python wrapper is provided for interfacing with other libraries. The REBOUNDx source code is machine independent and a binary format to save REBOUNDx configurations interfaces with the SimulationArchive class in REBOUND, making it possible to share and reproduce results bit by bit.
RECFAST calculates the recombination of H, HeI, and HeII in the early Universe; this involves a line-by-line treatment of each atomic level. It differs in comparison to previous calculations in two major ways: firstly, the ionization fraction x_e is approximately 10% smaller for redshifts <~800, due to non-equilibrium processes in the excited states of H, and secondly, HeI recombination is much slower than previously thought, and is delayed until just before H recombines. RECFAST enables fast computation of the ionization history (and quantities such as the power spectrum of CMB anisotropies which depend on it) for arbitrary cosmologies.
Time series are commonly unevenly spaced in time make it difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of their typical red-noise spectrum. REDFIT overcomes this problem by fitting a first-order autoregressive (AR1) process directly to unevenly spaced time series. Hence, interpolation in the time domain and its inevitable bias can be avoided. The program can be used to test if peaks in the spectrum of a time series are significant against the red-noise background from an AR1 process.
REDSPEC is an IDL based reduction package designed with NIRSPEC in mind though can be used to reduce data from other spectrographs as well. REDSPEC accomplishes spatial rectification by summing an A+B pair of a calibration star to produce an image with two spectra; the image is remapped on the basis of polynomial fits to the spectral traces and calculation of gaussian centroids to define their separation, producing straight spectral traces with respect to the detector rows. The raw images are remapped onto a coordinate system with uniform intervals in spatial extent along the slit and in wavelength along the dispersion axis.
The astronomical data reduction package REDUCEME reduces and analyzes long-slit spectroscopic data. The package uses the unformatted FORTRAN raw data format, so requires FITS files be transformed to REDUCEME format; the reverse operation (from REDUCEME to FITS format) is also available. The package is a set of programs written in FORTRAN 77 and includes shell scripts (using the C shell syntax) to perform routine tasks; it can be extended by the inclusion of external programs. REDUCEME uses PGPLOT (ascl:1103.002) for line plots and images, and a subset of subroutines, called BUTTON, enables the user to communicate interactively with the image display employing graphic buttons. One advantage of using REDUCEME is that for each image an associated error image can also be processed throughout the reduction process, allowing for a careful control of the error propagation.
Reflex provides an easy and flexible way to reduce VLT/VLTI science data using the ESO pipelines. It allows graphically specifying the sequence in which the data reduction steps are executed, including conditional stops, loops and conditional branches. It eases inspection of the intermediate and final data products and allows repetition of selected processing steps to optimize the data reduction. The data organization necessary to reduce the data is built into the system and is fully automatic; advanced users can plug their own modules and steps into the data reduction sequence. Reflex supports the development of data reduction workflows based on the ESO Common Pipeline Library. Reflex is based on the concept of a scientific workflow, whereby the data reduction cascade is rendered graphically and data seamlessly flow from one processing step to the next. It is distributed with a number of complete test datasets so users can immediately start experimenting and familiarize themselves with the system.
RegiStax is software for alignment/stacking/processing of images; it was released over 10 years ago and continues to be developed and improved. The current version is RegiStax 6, which supports the following formats: AVI, SER, RFL (RegiStax Framelist), BMP, JPG, TIF, and FIT. This version has a shorter and simpler processing sequence than its predecessor, and optimizing isn't necessary anymore as a new image alignment method optimizes directly. The interface of RegiStax 6 has been simplified to look more uniform in appearance and functionality, and RegiStax 6 now uses Multi-core processing, allowing the user to have up to have multiple cores(recommended to use maximally 4) working simultaneous during alignment/stacking.
RegPT computes the power spectrum in flat wCDM class models based on the RegPT treatment when provided with either of transfer function or matter power spectrum. It then gives the multiple-redshift outputs for power spectrum, and optionally provides correlation function data. The Fortran code has two major options for power spectrum calculations; -fast, which quickly computes the power spectrum at two-loop level (typically a few seconds) using the pre-computed data set of PT kernels for fiducial cosmological models, and -direct, in which the code first applies the fast method, and then follows the regularized expression for power spectrum to directly evaluate the multi-dimensional integrals. The output results are the power spectrum of direct calculation and difference of the results between fast and direct method. The code also gives the data set of PT diagrams necessary for power spectrum calculations from which the power spectrum can be constructed.
relxill self-consistently connects an angle-dependent reflection model constructed with XILLVER (http://www.srl.caltech.edu/personnel/javier/xillver/index.html) with the relativistic blurring code RELLINE (ascl:1505.021). It calculates the proper emission angle of the radiation at each point on the accretion disk and then takes the corresponding reflection spectrum into account.
repack re-packs and compresses line-transition data for radiative-transfer calculations. It identifies the strong lines that dominate the spectrum from the large-majority of weaker lines, returning a binary line-by-line (LBL) file with the strong lines info (wavenumber, Elow, gf, and isotope ID), and an ASCII file with the combined contribution of the weaker lines compressed into a continuum extinction coefficient (in cm-1 amagat-1) as function of wavenumber and temperature.
reproject implements image reprojection (resampling) methods for astronomical images using various techniques via a uniform interface. Reprojection re-grids images from one world coordinate system to another (for example changing the pixel resolution, orientation, coordinate system). reproject works on celestial images by interpolation, as well as by finding the exact overlap between pixels on the celestial sphere. It can also reproject to/from HEALPIX projections by relying on the astropy-healpix package.
REPS (REscaled Power Spectra) provides accurate, one-percent level, numerical simulations of the initial conditions for massive neutrino cosmologies, rescaling the late-time linear power spectra to the simulation initial redshift.
RequiSim computes the Variance Weighted Overlap, which is a measure of the bias on the lensing signal from power spectrum modelling bias for any non-linear model. It assumes that the bias on the power spectrum is Gaussian with a covariance described by a user-provided knowledge matrix that describes the covariance in the bias on the power spectrum. The data from the Euclid wide-field survey are included.
RESOLVE is a Bayesian inference algorithm for image reconstruction in radio interferometry. It is optimized for extended and diffuse sources. Features include parameter-free Bayesian reconstruction of radio continuum data with a focus on extended and weak diffuse sources, reconstruction with uncertainty propagation dependent on measurement noise, and estimation of the spatial correlation structure of the radio astronomical source. RESOLVE provides full support for measurement sets and includes a simulation tool (if uv-coverage is provided).
REVOLVER reconstructs real space positions from redshift-space tracer data by subtracting RSD through FFT-based reconstruction (optional) and applies void-finding algorithms to create a catalogue of voids in these tracers. The tracers are normally galaxies from a redshift survey but could also be halos or dark matter particles from a simulation box. Two void-finding routines are provided. The first is based on ZOBOV (ascl:1304.005) and uses Voronoi tessellation of the tracer field to estimate the local density, followed by a watershed void-finding step. The second is a voxel-based method, which uses a particle-mesh interpolation to estimate the tracer density, and then uses a similar watershed algorithm. Input data files can be in FITS format, or ASCII- or NPY-formatted data arrays.
RFCDE provides an implementation of random forests designed for conditional density estimation. It computes a kernel density estimate of y with nearest neighbor weightings defined by the location of the evaluation point x relative to the leaves in the random forest.
rfpipe supports Python-based analysis of radio interferometric data (especially from the Very Large Array) and searches for fast radio transients. This extends on the rtpipe library (ascl:1706.002) with new approaches to parallelization, acceleration, and more portable data products. rfpipe can run in standalone mode or be in a cluster environment.
RGW is a lightweight R-language implementation of the affine-invariant Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling method of Goodman & Weare (2010). The implementation is based on the description of the python package emcee (ascl:1303.002).
RH 1.5D performs Zeeman multi-level non-local thermodynamical equilibrium calculations with partial frequency redistribution for an arbitrary amount of chemical species. Derived from the RH code and written in C, it calculates spectra from 3D, 2D or 1D atmospheric models on a column-by-column basis (or 1.5D). It includes optimization features to speed up or improve convergence, which are particularly useful in dynamic models of chromospheres. While one should be aware of its limitations, the calculation of spectra using the 1.5D or column-by-column is a good approximation in many cases, and generally allows for faster convergence and more flexible methods of improving convergence. RH 1.5D scales well to at least tens of thousands of CPU cores.
RHOCUBE models 3D density distributions on a discrete Cartesian grid and their integrated 2D maps. It can be used for a range of applications, including modeling the electron number density in LBV shells and computing the emission measure. The RHOCUBE Python package provides several 3D density distributions, including a powerlaw shell, truncated Gaussian shell, constant-density torus, dual cones, and spiralling helical tubes, and can accept additional distributions. RHOCUBE provides convenient methods for shifts and rotations in 3D, and if necessary, an arbitrary number of density distributions can be combined into the same model cube and the integration ∫ dz performed through the joint density field.
The RHT (Rolling Hough Transform) measures linear intensity as a function of orientation in images. This machine vision algorithm works on any image-space (2D) data, and quantifies the presence of linear structure as a function of orientation. The RHT can be used to identify linear features in images, to quantify the orientation of structure in images, and to map image intensity from 2D x-y space to 3D x-y-orientation space. An option in the code allows the user to quantify intensity as a function of direction (modulo 2pi) rather than orientation (modulo pi). The RHT was first used to discover that filamentary structures in neutral hydrogen emission are aligned with the ambient magnetic field.
RICH (Racah Institute Computational Hydrodynamics) is a 2D hydrodynamic code based on Godunov's method. The code, largely based on AREPO (ascl:1909.010), acts on an unstructured moving mesh. It differs from AREPO in the interpolation and time advancement scheme as well as a novel parallelization scheme based on Voronoi tessellation. Though not universally true, in many cases a moving mesh gives better results than a static mesh: where matter moves one way and a sound wave is traveling in the other way (such that relative to the grid the wave is not moving), a static mesh gives better results than a moving mesh. RICH is designed in an object oriented, user friendly way that facilitates incorporation of new algorithms and physical processes.
RID (Relativistic Image Doubling in water Cherenkov detectors) uses Monte Carlo simulations to find the relative fraction of charged, relativistic particles entering a HAWC-like Water Cherenkov Detector that can cause a Relativistic Image Doubling (RID) effect visible to at least one of the internal detectors. The technique is available in C++ and Fortran; RID also includes python code for the horizontal incidence of the muon inside the tank.
RLOS (Relativistic Line Of Sight) uses hydrocode output data, such as that from PLUTO (ascl:1010.045), to create synthetic images depicting what a model relativistic astrophysical jet looks like to a stationary observer. The approximate time-delayed imaging algorithm used is implemented within existing line-of-sight code. The software has the potential to study a variety of dynamical astrophysical phenomena in collaboration with other imaging and simulation tools.
RM-CLEAN reads in dirty Q and U cubes, generates rmtf based on the frequencies given in an ASCII file, and cleans the RM spectra following the algorithm given by Brentjens (2007). The output cubes contain the clean model components and the CLEANed RM spectra. The input cubes must be reordered with mode=312, and the output cubes will have the same ordering and thus must be reordered after being written to disk. RM-CLEAN runs as a MIRIAD (ascl:1106.007) task and a Python wrapper is included with the code.
RM-Tools analyzes radio polarization data, specifically the use of Faraday rotation measure synthesis and Stokes QU model fitting. It contains routines for both single-pixel 1D polarized spectra as well as 3D polarization cubes. RM-Tools is intended to serve as a toolkit for studies of polarized radio sources and measurements of their Faraday rotation. RM-Tools is the core package for the pipelines used for the POlarized Sky Survey of the Universe's Magnetism (POSSUM) and the polarization component of the Very Large Array Sky Survey (VLASS). The package is maintained by the Canadian Initiative for Radio Astronomy Data Analysis (CIRADA; cirada.org).
RMextract calculates Ionospheric Faraday Rotation for a given epoch, location and line of sight. This Python code extracts TEC, vTEC, Earthmagnetic field and Rotation Measures from GPS and WMM data for radio interferometry observations.
Rmfit uses a forward-folding technique to obtain the best-fit parameters for a chosen model given user-selected source and background time intervals from data files containing observed count rates and a corresponding detector response matrix. rmfit displays lightcurves and spectra using a graphical interface that enables user-defined integrated or time-resolved spectral fits and binning in either time or energy. Originally developed for the analysis of BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) spectroscopy, rmfit is a tool for the spectroscopy of transient sources; it accommodates the Fermi GBM and LAT data and Swift BAT.
RMHB is a hierarchical Bayesian code for reverberation mapping (RM) that combines results of a sparsely sampled broad line region (BLR) light curve and a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) to infer properties of the sample of the AGN. The key idea of RM is to measure the time lag τ between variations in the continuum emission from the accretion disc and subsequent response of the broad line region (BLR). The measurement of τ is typically used to estimate the physical size of the BLR and is combined with other measurements to estimate the black hole mass MBH. A major difficulty with RM campaigns is the large amount of data needed to measure τ. RMHB allows a clear interpretation of a posterior distribution for hyperparameters describing the sample of AGN.
This program determines stellar population parameters (e.g. age, metallicity, IMF slope,...), using as input a pair of line-strength indices, through the interpolation in SSP model predictions. Both linear and bivariate fits are computed to perform the interpolation.
ROBAST (ROOT-based simulator for ray tracing) is a non-sequential ray-tracing simulation library developed for wide use in optical simulations of gamma-ray and cosmic-ray telescopes. The library is written in C++ and fully utilizes the geometry library of the ROOT analysis framework, and can build the complex optics geometries typically used in cosmic ray experiments and ground-based gamma-ray telescopes.
Robbie automates cataloging sources, finding variables, and identifying transients in the image domain. It works in a batch processing paradigm with a modular design so components can be swapped out or upgraded to adapt to different input data while retaining a consistent and coherent methodological approach. Robbie is based on commonly used and open software, including AegeanTools (ascl:1212.009) and STILS/TOPCAT (ascl:1101.010).
ROBOSPECT, written in C, automatically measures and deblends line equivalent widths for absorption and emission spectra. ROBOSPECT should not be used for stars with spectra in which there is no discernible continuum over large wavelength regions, nor for the most carbon-enhanced stars for which spectral synthesis would be favored. Although ROBOSPECT was designed for metal-poor stars, it is capable of fitting absorption and emission features in a variety of astronomical sources.
The DR25 Kepler Robovetter is a robotic decision-making code that dispositions each Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) from the final processing (DR 25) of the Kepler data into Planet Candidates (PCs) and False Positives (FPs). The Robovetter provides four major flags to designate each FP TCE as Not Transit-Like (NTL), a Stellar Eclipse (SS), a Centroid Offset (CO), and/or an Ephemeris Match (EM). It produces a score ranging from 0.0 to 1.0 that indicates the Robovetter's disposition confidence, where 1.0 indicates strong confidence in PC, and 0.0 indicates strong confidence in FP. Finally, the Robovetter provides comments in a text string that indicate the specific tests each FP TCE fails and provides supplemental information on all TCEs as necessary.
Roche is a visualization and analysis tool for drawing the Roche-lobe geometry of evolving binaries. Roche can be used as a standalone program reading data from the command line or from a file generated by SeBa (ascl:1201.003). Eventually Roche will be able to read data from any other binary evolution program. Roche requires Starlab (ascl:1010.076) version 4.1.1 or later and the pgplot (ascl:1103.002) libraries. Roche creates a series of images, based on the SeBa output file SeBa.data, displaying the evolutionary state of a binary.
Rockstar (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement) identifies dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure. Our method is massively parallel (up to 10^5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10^10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). Rockstar offers significant improvement in substructure recovery as compared to several other halo finders.
RODRIGUES (RATT Online Deconvolved Radio Image Generation Using Esoteric Software) is a web-based radio telescope simulation and reduction tool. From a technical perspective it is a web based parameterized docker container scheduler with a result set viewer.
ROGER (Reconstructing Orbits of Galaxies in Extreme Regions) predicts the dynamical properties of galaxies using the projected phase-space information. Written in R, it offers a choice of machine learning methods to classify the dynamical properties of galaxies. An interface for online use of the software is available at https://mdelosrios.shinyapps.io/roger_shiny/.
ROHSA (Regularized Optimization for Hyper-Spectral Analysis) reveals the statistical properties of interstellar gas through atomic and molecular lines. It uses a Gaussian decomposition algorithm based on a multi-resolution process from coarse to fine grid to decompose any kind of hyper-spectral observations into a sum of coherent Gaussian. Optimization is performed on the whole data cube at once to obtain a solution with spatially smooth parameters.
RoLo (Roche Lobe) calculates the radius and potential of the Roche Lobe for any specified direction, and also gives some other commonly used quantities (such as the Lagrange points). The calculator is valid for any mass ratio q between 0.01 and 100. The coordinates are spherical-polar (R, theta, phi) centered on one star (M1), with the x-axis (theta=pi/2, phi=0) pointing towards the other star (M2). The mass ratio is defined as q=M2/M1. Distances are given in units of the binary separation, a. A circular orbit is assumed.
The RPFITS data file format records synthesis visibility data obtained from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at Narrabri, NSW. It is also used for single-dish spectral line data obtained from Parkes and Mopra, including Parkes multibeam data. RPFITS superficially resembles random group FITS, but differs in important respects, making it incompatible with standard FITS software such as FITSIO (ascl:1010.001) and FTOOLS (ascl:9912.002) and, in particular, it precludes the use of fv (ascl:1205.005). The RPFITS Fortran library contains routines for reading and writing RPFITS files. A header file, RPFITS.h, is provided to facilitate usage by C and C++ applications. Also included is rpfhdr, a utility for viewing RPFITS headers (it also works for standard FITS), and rpfex for extracting selected scans from an RPFITS file.
rPICARD (Radboud PIpeline for the Calibration of high Angular Resolution Data) reduces data from different VLBI arrays, including high-frequency and low-sensitivity arrays, and supports continuum, polarization, and phase-referencing observations. Built on the CASA (ascl:1107.013) framework, it uses CASA for CLEAN imaging and self-calibration, and can be run non-interactively after only a few non-default input parameters are set. rPICARD delivers high-quality calibrated data and large bandwidth data can be processed within reasonable computing times.
RPPPS (Re-analysing Pipeline for Parkes Pulsar Survey) uses Linux shell scripts, C language, and python code and two parallel strategies to reorganize the PRESTO (ascl:1107.017) pulsar search pipeline to run multiple processes in parallel, thus accelerating the search for pulsars. Though originally designed for reprocessing PMPS data, the code has also been successfully used with FAST (Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope) drift scan data. The pipeline is only CPU-based and can be easily and quickly deployed in computing nodes for testing purposes or data processes.
RRATtrap is a single-pulse sifting algorithm to identify Rotating Radio Transients (RRATs) and transients using output from the PRESTO (ascl:1107.017) routine single_pulse_search.py. It can be integrated into pulsar survey data analysis pipelines and, in addition to finding RRATs, it can also identify Fast Radio Bursts.
rsigma calculates the resonant disturbing function, R(sigma), for a massless particle in an arbitrary orbit perturbed by a planet in circular orbit. This function defines the strength of the resonance (its semi-amplitude) and the location of the stable equilibrium points (the minima). It depends on the variable sigma called critical angle and on the particle's orbital elements a, e, i and the argument of the perihelion. R(sigma) is numerically calculated and the code is valid for arbitrary eccentricities and inclinations, including retrograde orbits.
The parallel one-dimensional moving-mesh hydrodynamics code RT1D reproduces the multidimensional dynamics from Rayleigh-Taylor instability in supernova remnants.
rtpipe (real-time pipeline) analyzes radio interferometric data with an emphasis on searching for transient or variable astrophysical sources. The package combines single-dish concepts such as dedispersion and filters with interferometric concepts, including images and the uv-plane. In contrast to time-domain data recorded with large single-dish telescopes, visibilities from interferometers can precisely localize sources anywhere in the entire field of view. rtpipe opens interferometers to the study of fast transient sky, including sources like pulsars, stellar flares, rotating radio transients, and fast radio bursts. Key portions of the search pipeline, such as image generation and dedispersion, have been accelerated. That, in combination with its multi-threaded, multi-node design, makes rtpipe capable of searching millisecond timescale data in real time on small compute clusters.
runDM calculates the running of the couplings of Dark Matter (DM) to the Standard Model (SM) in simplified models with vector mediators. By specifying the mass of the mediator and the couplings of the mediator to SM fields at high energy, the code can calculate the couplings at low energy, taking into account the mixing of all dimension-6 operators. runDM can also extract the operator coefficients relevant for direct detection, namely low energy couplings to up, down and strange quarks and to protons and neutrons.
The RV program produces a report listing the components, in a given direction, of the observer's velocity on a given date. This allows an observed radial velocity to be referred to an appropriate standard of rest -- typically either the Sun or an LSR.
As a secondary function, RV computes light time components to the Sun, thus allowing the times of phenomena observed from a terrestrial observatory to be referred to a heliocentric frame of reference. n.b. It will of course, in addition, be necessary to express the observations in the appropriate timescale as well as applying light time corrections. In particular, it is likely that an observed UTC will need to be converted to TDB as well as being corrected to the Sun.)
rvfit, developed in IDL 7.0, fits non-precessing keplerian radial velocity (RV) curves for double-line and single-line binary stars or exoplanets. It fits a simple keplerian model to the observed RV and computes the seven parameters (six for a single-line system) from the model. Some parameters can be fixed beforehand if they are known, for instance, if photometric observations are available. The fit is done using an Adaptive Simulated Annealing algorithm optimized for this specific task. Simulated Annealing methods are powerful heuristic algorithms to minimize functions in multiparametric spaces.
The RVLIN package for IDL is a set of routines that quickly fits an arbitrary number of Keplerian curves to radial velocity data. It can handle data from multiple telescopes (i.e. it solves for the offset), constraints on P, e, and time of peri passage, and can incorporate transit timing data. The code handles fixed periods and circular orbits in combination and transit time constraints, including for multiple transiting planets.
RVSAO is a set of programs to obtain redshifts and radial velocities from digital spectra. RVSAO operates in the IRAF (Tody 1986, 1993) environment. The heart of the system is xcsao, which implements the cross-correlation method, and is a direct descendant of the system built by Tonry and Davis (1979). emsao uses intelligent heuristics to search for emission lines in spectra, then fits them to obtain a redshift. sumspec shifts and sums spectra to build templates for cross-correlation. linespec builds synthetic spectra given a list of spectral lines. bcvcorr corrects velocities for the motion of the earth. We discuss in detail the parameters necessary to run xcsao and emsao properly. We discuss the reliability and error associated with xcsao derived redshifts. We develop an internal error estimator, and we show how large, stable surveys can be used to develop more accurate error estimators. We develop a new methodology for building spectral templates for galaxy redshifts. We show how to obtain correlation velocities using emission line templates. Emission line correlations are substantially more efficient than the previous standard technique, automated emission line fitting. We compare the use of RVSAO with new methods, which use Singular Value Decomposition and $chi^2$ fitting techniques.
RVSpecFit determines radial velocities and stellar atmospheric parameters from spectra by direct pixel fitting by interpolated stellar templates. The code doesn't require spectrum normalization and can deal with non-flux calibrated spectra. RVSpecFit is able to fit multiple spectra simultaneously.
The s2 package can represent any arbitrary function defined on the sphere. Both real space map and harmonic space spherical harmonic representations are supported. Basic sky representations have been extended to simulate full sky noise distributions and Gaussian cosmic microwave background realisations. Support for the representation and convolution of beams is also provided. The code requires HEALPix (ascl:1107.018) and CFITSIO (ascl:1010.001).
Many problems in astronomy and astrophysics require a computation of the spherical harmonic transforms. This is in particular the case whenever data to be analyzed are distributed over the sphere or a set of corresponding mock data sets has to be generated. In many of those contexts, rapidly improving resolutions of both the data and simulations puts increasingly bigger emphasis on our ability to calculate the transforms quickly and reliably.
The scalable spherical harmonic transform library S2HAT consists of a set of flexible, massively parallel, and scalable routines for calculating diverse (scalar, spin-weighted, etc) spherical harmonic transforms for a class of isolatitude sky grids or pixelizations. The library routines implement the standard algorithm with the complexity of O(n^3/2), where n is a number of pixels/grid points on the sphere, however, owing to their efficient parallelization and advanced numerical implementation, they achieve very competitive performance and near perfect scalability. S2HAT is written in Fortran 90 with a C interface. This software is a derivative of the spherical harmonic transforms included in the HEALPix package and is based on both serial and MPI routines of its version 2.01, however, since version 2.5 this software is fully autonomous of HEALPix and can be compiled and run without the HEALPix library.
S2LET provides high performance routines for fast wavelet analysis of signals on the sphere. It uses the SSHT code built on the MW sampling theorem to perform exact spherical harmonic transforms on the sphere. The resulting wavelet transform implemented in S2LET is theoretically exact, i.e. a band-limited signal can be recovered from its wavelet coefficients exactly and the wavelet coefficients capture all the information. S2LET also supports the HEALPix sampling scheme, in which case the transforms are not theoretically exact but achieve good numerical accuracy. The core routines of S2LET are written in C and have interfaces in Matlab, IDL and Java. Real signals can be written to and read from FITS files and plotted as Mollweide projections.
We present a new, three-dimensional (3D) plotting library with advanced features, and support for standard and enhanced display devices. The library - S2PLOT - is written in C and can be used by C, C++ and FORTRAN programs on GNU/Linux and Apple/OSX systems. S2PLOT draws objects in a 3D (x,y,z) Cartesian space and the user interactively controls how this space is rendered at run time. With a PGPLOT inspired interface, S2PLOT provides astronomers with elegant techniques for displaying and exploring 3D data sets directly from their program code, and the potential to use stereoscopic and dome display devices. The S2PLOT architecture supports dynamic geometry and can be used to plot time-evolving data sets, such as might be produced by simulation codes. In this paper, we introduce S2PLOT to the astronomical community, describe its potential applications, and present some example uses of the library.
s3PCF computes the 3-point correlation function (3PCF) in the squeezed limit given galaxy positions and pair positions. The code is currently written specifically for the Abacus simulations, but the main functionalities can be also easily adapted for other galaxy catalogs with the appropriate properties.
Saada transforms a set of heterogeneous FITS files or VOtables of various categories (images, tables, spectra, etc.) in a powerful database deployed on the Web. Databases are located on your host and stay independent of any external server. This job doesn’t require writing code. Saada can mix data of various categories in multiple collections. Data collections can be linked each to others making relevant browsing paths and allowing data-mining oriented queries. Saada supports 4 VO services (Spectra, images, sources and TAP) . Data collections can be published immediately after the deployment of the Web interface.
The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.
SACC (Save All Correlations and Covariances) is a format and reference library for general storage
of summary statistic measurements for the Dark Energy Science Collaboration (DESC) within and from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) project's Dark Energy Science Collaboration.
SAGE (Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution) models galaxy formation in a cosmological context. SAGE has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model runs on any dark matter cosmological N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties.
SALT (Spectral Adaptive Lightcurve Template) is a package for Type Ia Supernovae light curve fitting. Its main purpose is to provide a distance estimator but it can also be used for photometric redshifts, and spectroscopic + photometric identification. This code is also known by the name snfit.
The SAMI (Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph) pipeline reduces data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) for the SAMI Galaxy Survey. The python code organizes SAMI data and, along with the AAO 2dfdr package, carries out all steps in the data reduction, from raw data to fully calibrated datacubes. The principal steps are: data management, use of 2dfdr to produce row-stacked spectra, flux calibration, correction for telluric absorption, removal of atmospheric dispersion, alignment of dithered exposures, and drizzling onto a regular output grid. Variance and covariance information is tracked throughout the pipeline. Some quality control routines are also included.
samiDB is an archive, database, and query engine to serve the spectra, spectral hypercubes, and high-level science products that make up the SAMI Galaxy Survey. Based on the versatile Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5), samiDB does not depend on relational database structures and hence lightens the setup and maintenance load imposed on science teams by metadata tables. The code, written in Python, covers the ingestion, querying, and exporting of data as well as the automatic setup of an HTML schema browser. samiDB serves as a maintenance-light data archive for Big Science and can be adopted and adapted by science teams that lack the means to hire professional archivists to set up the data back end for their projects.
The Search And Non-Destroy (SAND) is a VLBI data reduction pipeline composed of a set of Python programs based on the AIPS interface provided by ObitTalk. It is designed for the massive data reduction of multi-epoch VLBI monitoring research. It can automatically investigate calibrated visibility data, search all the radio emissions above a given noise floor and do the model fitting either on the CLEANed image or directly on the uv data. It then digests the model-fitting results, intelligently identifies the multi-epoch jet component correspondence, and recognizes the linear or non-linear proper motion patterns. The outputs including CLEANed image catalogue with polarization maps, animation cube, proper motion fitting and core light curves. For uncalibrated data, a user can easily add inline modules to do the calibration and self-calibration in a batch for a specific array.
SAOImage DS9 is an astronomical imaging and data visualization application. DS9 supports FITS images and binary tables, multiple frame buffers, region manipulation, and many scale algorithms and colormaps. It provides for easy communication with external analysis tasks and is highly configurable and extensible via XPA and SAMP. DS9 is a stand-alone application. It requires no installation or support files. Versions of DS9 currently exist for Solaris, Linux, MacOSX, and Windows. All versions and platforms support a consistent set of GUI and functional capabilities. DS9 supports advanced features such as multiple frame buffers, mosaic images, tiling, blinking, geometric markers, colormap manipulation, scaling, arbitrary zoom, rotation, pan, and a variety of coordinate systems. DS9 also supports FTP and HTTP access. The GUI for DS9 is user configurable. GUI elements such as the coordinate display, panner, magnifier, horizontal and vertical graphs, button bar, and colorbar can be configured via menus or the command line. DS9 is a Tk/Tcl application which utilizes the SAOTk widget set. It also incorporates the X Public Access (XPA) mechanism to allow external processes to access and control its data, GUI functions, and algorithms.
Sapporo mimics the behavior of GRAPE hardware and uses the GPU to perform high-precision gravitational N-body simulations. It makes use of CUDA and therefore only works on NVIDIA GPUs. N-body codes currently running on GRAPE-6 can switch to Sapporo by a simple relinking of the library. Sapporo's precision is comparable to that of GRAPE-6, even though internally the GPU hardware is limited to single precision arithmetics. This limitation is effectively overcome by emulating double precision for calculating the distance between particles.
SARA-PPD is a proof of concept MATLAB implementation of an acceleration strategy for a recently proposed primal-dual distributed algorithm. The algorithm optimizes resolution by accounting for the correct noise statistics, leverages natural weighting in the definition of the minimization problem for image reconstruction, and optimizes sensitivity by enabling accelerated convergence through a preconditioning strategy incorporating sampling density information. This algorithm offers efficient processing of large-scale data sets that will be acquired by next generation radio-interferometers such as the Square Kilometer Array.
SARAH builds and analyzes SUSY and non-SUSY models. It calculates all vertices, mass matrices, tadpoles equations, one-loop corrections for tadpoles and self-energies, and two-loop RGEs for a given model. SARAH writes model files for a variety of other software packages for dark matter studies, includes many SUSY and non-SUSY models, and makes implementing new models efficient and straightforward. Written in Mathematica, SARAH can also use output from Vevacious (ascl:1904.019) to check for the global minimum for a given model and parameter point.
The Science Analysis System (SAS) is an extensive suite of software tasks developed to process the data collected by the XMM-Newton Observatory. The SAS extracts standard (spectra, light curves) and/or customized science products, and allows reproductions of the reduction pipelines run to get the PPS products from the ODFs files. SAS includes a powerful and extensive suite of FITS file manipulation packages based on the Data Access Layer library.
SASRST, a small collection of Python scripts, attempts to reproduce the semi-analytical one-dimensional equilibrium and non-equilibrium radiative shock tube solutions of Lowrie & Rauenzahn (2007) and Lowrie & Edwards (2008), respectively. The included code calculates the solution for a given set of input parameters and also plots the results using Matplotlib. This software was written to provide validation for numerical radiative shock tube solutions produced by a radiation hydrodynamics code.
SATMC is a general purpose, MCMC-based SED fitting code written for IDL and Python. Following Bayesian statistics and Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithms, SATMC derives the best fit parameter values and returns the sampling of parameter space used to construct confidence intervals and parameter-parameter confidence contours. The fitting may cover any range of wavelengths. The code is designed to incorporate any models (and potential priors) of the user's choice. The user guide lists all the relevant details for including observations, models and usage under both IDL and Python.
A Savitzky–Golay filter is often applied to data to smooth the data without greatly distorting the signal; however, almost all data inherently comes with noise, and the noise properties can differ from point to point. This python script improves upon the traditional Savitzky-Golay filter by accounting for error covariance in the data. The inputs and arguments are modeled after scipy.signal.savgol_filter.
SBGAT (Small Body Geophysical Analysis Tool) generates simulated data originating from small bodies shape models, combined with advanced shape-modification properties. It uses polyhedral shape models from which can be computed mass properties such as volume, center of mass, and inertia, synthetic observations such as lightcurves and radar, and which can be used within dynamical models, such as spherical harmonics and polyhedron gravity modeling. SBGAT can generate spherical harmonics expansions from constant-density polyhedra (and export them to JSON) and evaluate the spherical harmonics expansions. It can also generate YORP coefficients, multi-threaded Polyhedron Gravity Model gravity and potential evaluations, and synthetic light-curve and radar observations for single/primary asteroids.
SBGAT has two distinct packages: a dynamic library SBGAT Core that contains the data structure and algorithm backbone of SBGAT, and SBGAT Gui, which wraps the former inside a VTK, Qt user interface to facilitate user/data interaction. SBGAT Core can be used without the SBGAT Gui wrapper.
sbpy, an Astropy affiliated package, supplements functionality provided by Astropy (ascl:1304.002) with functions and methods that are frequently used for planetary astronomy with a clear focus on asteroids and comets. It offers access tools for various databases for orbital and physical data, spectroscopy analysis tools and models, photometry models for resolved and unresolved observations, ephemerides services, and other tools useful for small-body planetary astronomy.
Astrometric and photometric calibrations have remained the most tiresome step in the reduction of large imaging surveys. SCAMP has been written to address this problem. The program efficiently computes accurate astrometric and photometric solutions for any arbitrary sequence of FITS images in a completely automatic way. SCAMP is released under the GNU General Public License.
ScamPy "paints" an observed population of cosmological objects on top of the DM-halo/subhalo hierarchy obtained from DM-only simulations. The method combines the Halo Occupation Distribution (HOD) method with sub-halo abundance matching (SHAM); the two processes together are dubbed Sub-halo clustering and abundance matching (SCAM). The procedure requires applying the two methods in sequence; by applying the HOD scheme, the host sub-haloes are selected, and the SHAM algorithm associates an observable property of choice to each sub-halo. The provided python interface allows users to load and populate DM halos and sub-halos obtained by FoF and SUBFIND algorithms applied to DM snapshots at any redshift. The software is highly-optimized and flexible.
Scanamorphos is an IDL program to build maps from scan observations made with bolometer arrays. Scanamorphos can post-process scan observations performed with the Herschel photometer arrays. This post-processing mainly consists in subtracting the total low-frequency noise (both its thermal and non-thermal components), masking cosmic ray hit residuals, and projecting the data onto a map. Although it was developed for Herschel, it is also applicable with minimal adjustment to scan observations made with other bolometer arrays provided they entail sufficient redundancy; it was successfully applied to P-Artemis, an instrument operating on the APEX telescope. Scanamorphos does not assume any particular noise model and does not apply any Fourier-space filtering to the data. It is an empirical tool using only the redundancy built in the observations, taking advantage of the fact that each portion of the sky is sampled at multiple times by multiple bolometers. The user is allowed to optionally visualize and control results at each intermediate step, but the processing is fully automated.
SCARLET performs source separation (aka "deblending") on multi-band images. It is geared towards optical astronomy, where scenes are composed of stars and galaxies, but it is straightforward to apply it to other imaging data. Separation is achieved through a constrained matrix factorization, which models each source with a Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) and a non-parametric morphology, or multiple such components per source. The code performs forced photometry (with PSF matching if needed) using an optimal weight function given by the signal-to-noise weighted morphology across bands. The approach works well if the sources in the scene have different colors and can be further strengthened by imposing various additional constraints/priors on each source. Because of its generic utility, this package provides a stand-alone implementation that contains the core components of the source separation algorithm. However, the development of this package is part of the LSST Science Pipeline; the meas_deblender package contains a wrapper to implement the algorithms here for the LSST stack.
SCEPtER (Stellar CharactEristics Pisa Estimation gRid) estimates the stellar mass and radius given a set of observable quantities; the results are obtained by adopting a maximum likelihood technique over a grid of pre-computed stellar models. The code is quite flexible since different observables can be used, depending on their availability, as well as different grids of models.
schwimmbad provides a uniform interface to parallel processing pools and enables switching easily between local development (e.g., serial processing or with multiprocessing) and deployment on a cluster or supercomputer (via, e.g., MPI or JobLib). The utilities provided by schwimmbad require that tasks or data be “chunked” and that code can be “mapped” onto the chunked tasks.
SciDB is a DMAS (Data Management and Analytics Software System) optimized for data management of big data and for big analytics. SciDB is organized around multidimensional array storage, a generalization of relational tables, and is designed to be scalable up to petabytes and beyond. Complex analytics are simplified with SciDB because arrays and vectors are first-class objects with built-in optimized operations. Spatial operators and time-series analysis are easy to express. Interfaces to common scientific tools like R as well as programming languages like C++ and Python are provided.
SCIMES identifies relevant molecular gas structures within dendrograms of emission using the spectral clustering paradigm. It is useful for decomposing objects in complex environments imaged at high resolution.
SCINTOOLS (SCINtillation TOOLS) simulates and analyzes pulsar scintillation data. The code can be used for processing observed dynamic spectra, computing secondary spectra and ACFs, measuring scintillation arcs, simulating dynamic spectra, and modeling pulsar transverse velocities through scintillation arcs or diffractive timescales.
The Semi-automated multi-COmponent Universal Spectral-line fitting Engine (SCOUSE) is a spectral line fitting algorithm that fits Gaussian files to spectral line emission. It identifies the spatial area over which to fit the data and generates a grid of spectral averaging areas (SAAs). The spatially averaged spectra are fitted according to user-provided tolerance levels, and the best fit is selected using the Akaike Information Criterion, which weights the chisq of a best-fitting solution according to the number of free-parameters. A more detailed inspection of the spectra can be performed to improve the fit through an iterative process, after which SCOUSE integrates the new solutions into the solution file.
scousepy is a Python implementation of spectral line-fitting IDL code SCOUSE (ascl:1601.003). It fits a large amount of complex astronomical spectral line data in a systematic way.
SDAR (Slow-Down Algorithmic Regularization) simulates the long-term evolution of few-body systems such as binaries and triples. The algorithm used provides a few orders of magnitude faster performance than the classical N-body method. The secular evolution of hierarchical systems, e.g. Kozai-Lidov oscillation, can be well reproduced. The code is written in the C++ language and can be used either as a stand-alone tool or a library to be plugged in other N-body codes. The high precision of the floating point to 62 digits is also supported.
Dual Active Nuclei Galaxies (DAGNs) are rare occurrences in the sky. Until now, most AGNs have been described to be found serendipitously, or by manual observation. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in such dual AGNs and their astrophysical properties. Their study is important to the understanding of galaxy formation, star formation and these objects are the precursors to Gravitational Wave Sources.
Hence, we have devised a pipeline, that along with systematic data collection, can detect such dual AGN candidates. A novel algorithm 'Graph-Boosted Gradient Ascent' has been devised to detect whether an R-band image of a galaxy is a potential candidate for a DAGN or not. The pipeline can be cloned to a user's machine, and by joining the AstrIRG_DAGN group on SciServer, astronomers can collectively contribute to the mining of DAGNs.
Seaborn provides a high-level interface for drawing attractive statistical graphics. Written in Python, it builds on matplotlib and integrates closely with pandas data structures. Its plotting functions operate on dataframes and arrays containing whole datasets and internally perform the necessary semantic mapping and statistical aggregation to produce informative plots. Its dataset-oriented, declarative API allows the user to focus on what the different elements of the plots mean, rather than on the details of how to draw them.
SearchCal builds an evolutive catalog of stars suitable as calibrators within any given user-defined angular distance and magnitude around a scientific target. SearchCal can select suitable bright calibration stars (V ≤ 10; K ≤ 5.0) for obtaining the ultimate precision of current interferometric instruments like the VLTI and faint calibration stars up to K ~ 15 around the scientific target. Star catalogs available at the CDS are searched via web requests and provide the useful astrometric and photometric informations for selecting calibrators. The missing photometries are computed with an accuracy of about 0.1 mag. The stellar angular diameter is estimated with a precision of about 10% through newly determined surface-brightness versus color-index relations based on the I, J, H and K magnitudes. For each star the squared visibility is computed taking into account the central wavelength and the maximum baseline of the predicted observations.
The stellar and binary evolution package SeBa is fully integrated into the kira integrator, although it can also be used as a stand-alone module for non-dynamical applications. Due to the interaction between stellar evolution and stellar dynamics, it is difficult to solve for the evolution of both systems in a completely self-consistent way. The trajectories of stars are computed using a block timestep scheme, as described earlier. Stellar and binary evolution is updated at fixed intervals (every 1/64 of a crossing time, typically a few thousand years). Any feedback between the two systems may thus experience a delay of at most one timestep. Internal evolution time steps may differ for each star and binary, and depend on binary period, perturbations due to neighbors, and the evolutionary state of the star. Time steps in this treatment vary from several milliseconds up to (at most) a million years.
Prior to recombination photons, electrons, and atomic nuclei rapidly scattered and behaved, almost, like a single tightly-coupled photon-baryon plasma. In order to solve the cosmological perturbation equations during that time, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) codes use the so-called tight-coupling approximation in which the problematic terms (i.e. the source of the stiffness) are expanded in inverse powers of the Thomson Opacity. Most codes only keep the terms linear in the inverse Thomson Opacity. We have developed a second-order tight-coupling code to test the validity of the usual first-order tight-coupling code. It is based on the publicly available code CAMB.
SecularMultiple computes the secular (orbit-averaged) gravitational dynamics of hierarchical multiple systems composed of nested binary orbits (simplex-type systems) with any configuration and any number of bodies. A particle can represent a binary or a body. The structure of the system is determined by linking to other particles with the attributes child1 and child2, and tidal interactions and relativistic corrections are included in an ad hoc fashion. SecularMultiple also includes routines for external perturbations such as flybys and supernovae.
SEDBYS (Spectral Energy Distribution Builder for Young Stars) provides command-line tools and uses existing functions from standard packages such as Astropy (ascl:1304.002) to collate archival photometric and spectroscopic data. It also builds and inspects SEDS, and automatically collates the necessary software references.
SEDkit constructs and analyzes simple spectral energy distributions (SED). This collection of pure Python modules creates individual SEDs or SED catalogs from spectra and/or photometry and calculates fundamental parameters (fbol, Mbol, Lbol, Teff, mass, log(g)).
SEDobs uses state-of-the-art theoretical galaxy SEDs (spectral energy distributions) to create simulated observations of distant galaxies. It used BC03 and M05 theoretical models and allows the user to configure the simulated observation that are needed. For a given simulated galaxy, the user is able to simulate multi-spectral and multi-photometric observations.
sedop is a Monte-Carlo minimization code designed to optimally construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for sources of ultraviolet and X-ray radiation employed in numerical simulations of reionization and radiative feedback.
SEDPY performs a variety of tasks for astronomical spectral energy distributions. It can generate synthetic photometry through any filter, provides detailed modeling of extinction curves, and offers basic aperture photometry algorithms. SEDPY can also store and interpolate model SEDs, convolve absolute or apparent fluxes, and calculate rest-frame magnitudes.
SEEK (Signal Extraction and Emission Kartographer) processes time-ordered-data from single dish radio telescopes or from the simulation pipline HIDE (ascl:1607.019), removes artifacts from Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), automatically applies flux calibration, and recovers the astronomical radio signal. With its companion code HIDE (ascl:1607.019), it provides end-to-end simulation and processing of radio survey data.
The Python package segueSelect automatically models the SDSS/SEGUE selection fraction -- the fraction of stars with good spectra -- as a continuous function of apparent magnitude for each plate. The selection function can be determined for any desired sample cuts in signal-to-noise ratio, u-g, r-i, and E(B-V). The package requires Pyfits (ascl:1207.009) and, for coordinate transformations, galpy (ascl:1411.008). It can calculate the KS probability that the spectropscopic sample was drawn from the underlying photometric sample with the model selection function, plot the cumulative distribution function in r-band apparent magnitude of the spectroscopic sample (red) and the photometric sample+selection-function-model for this plate, and, if galpy is installed, can transform velocities into the Galactic coordinate frame. The code can also determine the selection function for SEGUE K stars.
The self-lensing binary code with Markov chain code was used to analyze the self-lensing binary system KOI-3278. It includes the MCMC modeling and the key figures.
SENR (Simple, Efficient Numerical Relativity) provides the algorithmic framework that combines the C codes generated by NRPy+ (ascl:1807.025) into a functioning numerical relativity code. It is part of the numerical relativity code package SENR/NRPy+. The package extends previous implementations of the BSSN reference-metric formulation to a much broader class of curvilinear coordinate systems, making it suitable for modeling physical configurations with approximate or exact symmetries, such as modeling black hole dynamics.
SEP (Source Extraction and Photometry) makes the core algorithms of Source Extractor (ascl:1010.064) available as a library of standalone functions and classes. These operate directly on in-memory arrays (no FITS files or configuration files). The code is derived from the Source Extractor code base (written in C) and aims to produce results compatible with Source Extractor whenever possible. SEP consists of a C library with no dependencies outside the standard library and a Python module that wraps the C library in a Pythonic API. The Python wrapper operates on NumPy arrays with NumPy as its only dependency. It is generated using Cython.
From Source Extractor, SEP includes background estimation, image segmentation (including on-the-fly filtering and source deblending), aperture photometry in circular and elliptical apertures, and source measurements such as Kron radius, "windowed" position fitting, and half-light radius. It also adds the following features that are not available in Source Extractor: optimized matched filter for variable noise in source extraction; circular annulus and elliptical annulus aperture photometry functions; local background subtraction in shape consistent with aperture in aperture photometry functions; exact pixel overlap mode in all aperture photometry functions; and masking of elliptical regions on images.
Subpixel Event Repositioning (SER) techniques significantly improve the already unprecedented spatial resolution of Chandra X-ray imaging with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). Chandra CCD SER techniques are based on the premise that the impact position of events can be refined, based on the distribution of charge among affected CCD pixels. Unlike ACIS SER models that are restricted to corner split (3- and 4-pixel) events and assume that such events take place at the split pixel corners, this IDL code uses two-pixel splits as well, and incorporates more realistic estimates of photon impact positions.
SEREN is an astrophysical Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code designed to investigate star and planet formation problems using self-gravitating hydrodynamics simulations of molecular clouds, star-forming cores, and protostellar disks.
SEREN is written in Fortran 95/2003 with a modular philosophy for adding features into the code. Each feature can be easily activated or deactivated by way of setting options in the Makefile before compiling the code. This has the added benefit of allowing unwanted features to be removed at the compilation stage resulting in a smaller and faster executable program. SEREN is written with OpenMP directives to allow parallelization on shared-memory architecture.
SERPent is an automated reduction and RFI-mitigation procedure that uses the SumThreshold methodology. It was originally developed for the LOFAR pipeline. SERPent is written in Parseltongue, enabling interaction with the Astronomical Image Processing Software (AIPS) program. Moreover, SERPent is a simple "out of the box" Python script, which is easy to set up and is free of compilers.
Sérsic is an implementation of the exact deprojection of Sérsic surface brightness profiles described in Baes and Gentile (2011). This code depends on the mpmath python library for an implementation of the Meijer G function required by the Baes and Gentile (hereafter B+G) formulas for rational values of the Sérsic index. Sérsic requires rational Sérsic indices, but any irrational number can be approximated arbitrarily well by some rational number. The code also depends on scipy, but the dependence is mostly for testing. The implementation of the formulas and the formulas themselves have undergone comprehensive testing.
SERVAL calculates radial velocities (RVs) from stellar spectra. The code uses least-squares fitting algorithms to derive the RVs and additional spectral diagnostics. Forward modeling in pixel space is used to properly weight pixel errors, and the stellar templates are reconstructed from the observations themselves to make optimal use of the RV information inherent in the stellar spectra.
The SETI Encryption code, written in Python, creates a message for use in testing the decryptability of a simulated incoming interstellar message. The code uses images in a portable bit map (PBM) format, then writes the corresponding bits into the message, and finally returns both a PBM image and a text (TXT) file of the entire message. The natural constants (c, G, h) and the wavelength of the message are defined in the first few lines of the code, followed by the reading of the input files and their conversion into 757 strings of 359 bits to give one page. Each header of a page, i.e. the little-endian binary code translation of the tempo-spatial yardstick, is calculated and written on-the-fly for each page.
SExSeg forces SExtractor (ascl:1010.064) to run using a pre-defined segmentation map (the definition of objects and their borders). The defined segments double as isophotal apertures. SExSeg alters the detection image based on a pre-defined segmenation map while preparing your "analysis image" by subtracting the background in a separate SExtractor run (using parameters you specify). SExtractor is then run in "double-image" mode with the altered detection image and background-subtracted analysis image.
This new software optimally detects, de-blends, measures and classifies sources from astronomical images: SExtractor (Source Extractor). A very reliable star/galaxy separation can be achieved on most images using a neural network trained with simulated images. Salient features of SExtractor include its ability to work on very large images, with minimal human intervention, and to deal with a wide variety of object shapes and magnitudes. It is therefore particularly suited to the analysis of large extragalactic surveys.
sf3dmodels models star-forming regions; it brings together analytical models in order to compute their physical properties in a 3-dimensional grid. The package can couple different models in a single grid to recreate complex star forming systems such as those being revealed by current instruments. The output data can be read with LIME (ascl:1107.012) or RADMC-3D (ascl:1108.016) to carry out radiative transfer calculations of the modeled region.
SFH is an efficient IDL tool that quickly computes accurate predictions for the baryon budget history in a galactic halo.
SFoF is a friends-of-friends galaxy cluster detection algorithm that operates in either spectroscopic or photometric redshift space. The linking parameters, both transverse and along the line-of-sight, change as a function of redshift to account for selection effects.
SGNAPS allows the user to plot a one-dimensional spectrum, together with the corresponding two-dimensional and a reference spectrum (for example the sky spectrum). This makes it possible to check on the reality of spectral features that are present in the one-dimensional spectrum, which could be due to bad sky subtraction or fringing residuals. It is also possible to zoom in and out all three spectra, edit the one-dimensional spectrum, smooth it with a simple square window function, measure the signal to noise over a selected wavelength interval, and fit the position of a selected spectral line. SGNAPS also allows the astronomer to obtain quick redshift estimates by providing a tool to fit or mark the position of a spectral line, and a function that will compute a list of possible redshifts based on a list of known lines in galaxy spectra. SGNAPS is derived from the plotting tools of VIPGI and contains almost all of their capabilities.
SgrbWorldModel, written in Fortran 90, presents an attempt at modeling the population distribution of the Short-duration class of Gamma-Ray Bursts (SGRBs) as detected by the NASA's now-defunct Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). It is assumed that the population distribution of SGRBs is well fit by a multivariate log-normal distribution, whose differential cosmological rate of occurrence follows the Star-Formation-Rate (SFR) convolved with a log-normal binary-merger delay-time distribution. The best-fit parameters of the model are then found by maximizing the likelihood of the observed data by the BATSE detectors via a native built-in Adaptive Metropolis-Hastings Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (AMH-MCMC)Sampler that is part of the code. A model for the detection algorithm of the BATSE detectors is also provided.
Shadowfax simulates galaxy evolution. Written in object-oriented modular C++, it evolves a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. For the hydrodynamical integration, it makes use of a (co-) moving Lagrangian mesh. The code has a 2D and 3D version, contains utility programs to generate initial conditions and visualize simulation snapshots, and its input/output is compatible with a number of other simulation codes, e.g. Gadget2 (ascl:0003.001) and GIZMO (ascl:1410.003).
Shape is a flexible interactive 3D morpho-kinematical modeling application for astrophysics. It reduces the restrictions on the physical assumptions, data type and amount required for a reconstruction of an object's morphology. It applies interactive graphics and allows astrophysicists to provide a-priori knowledge about the object by interactively defining 3D structural elements. By direct comparison of model prediction with observational data, model parameters can then be automatically optimized to fit the observation.
Shapelets are a complete, orthonormal set of 2D basis functions constructed from Laguerre or Hermite polynomials weighted by a Gaussian. A linear combination of these functions can be used to model any image, in a similar way to Fourier or wavelet synthesis. The shapelet decomposition is particularly efficient for images localized in space, and provide a high level of compression for individual galaxies in astronomical data. The basis has many elegant mathematical properties that make it convenient for image analysis and processing.
Shark is a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model for easy exploration of different physical processes. Shark has been implemented with several models for gas cooling, active galactic nuclei, stellar and photo-ionization feedback, and star formation (SF). The software can determine the stellar mass function and stellar–halo mass relation at z=0–4; cosmic evolution of the star formation rate density, stellar mass, atomic and molecular hydrogen; local gas scaling relations; and structural galaxy properties. It performs particularly well for the mass–size relation for discs/bulges, the gas–stellar mass and stellar mass–metallicity relations. Shark is written in C++11 and has been parallelized with OpenMP.
The Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method (SHDOM) radiative transfer model computes polarized monochromatic or spectral band radiative transfer in a one, two, or three-dimensional medium for either collimated solar and/or thermal emission sources of radiation. The model is written in a variant of Fortran 77 and in Fortran90 and requires a Fortran 90 compiler. Also included are programs for generating the optical property files input to SHDOM from physical properties of water cloud particles and aerosols.
SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate lightcurves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, shell or stars as well as an empty space may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative tranfer. The program does not solve the inverse problem of finding the stellar and orbital parameters.
Current and upcoming wide-field, ground-based, broad-band imaging surveys promise to address a wide range of outstanding problems in galaxy formation and cosmology. Several such uses of ground-based data, especially weak gravitational lensing, require highly precise measurements of galaxy image statistics with careful correction for the effects of the point-spread function (PSF). The SHERA (SHEar Reconvolution Analysis) software simulates ground-based imaging data with realistic galaxy morphologies and observing conditions, starting from space-based data (from COSMOS, the Cosmological Evolution Survey) and accounting for the effects of the space-based PSF. This code simulates ground-based data, optionally with a weak lensing shear applied, in a model-independent way using a general Fourier space formalism. The utility of this pipeline is that it allows for a precise, realistic assessment of systematic errors due to the method of data processing, for example in extracting weak lensing galaxy shape measurements or galaxy radial profiles, given user-supplied observational conditions and real galaxy morphologies. Moreover, the simulations allow for the empirical test of error estimates and determination of parameter degeneracies, via generation of many noise maps. The public release of this software, along with a large sample of cleaned COSMOS galaxy images (corrected for charge transfer inefficiency), should enable upcoming ground-based imaging surveys to achieve their potential in the areas of precision weak lensing analysis, galaxy profile measurement, and other applications involving detailed image analysis.
This code is no longer maintained and has been superseded by GalSim (ascl:1402.009).
Sherpa is the CIAO (ascl:1311.006) modeling and fitting application made available by the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). It can be used for analysis of images, spectra and time series from many telescopes, including optical telescopes such as Hubble. Sherpa is flexible, modular and extensible. It has an IPython user interface and it is also an importable Python module. Sherpa models, optimization and statistic functions are available via both C++ and Python for software developers wishing to link such functions directly to their own compiled code.
The CIAO 4.3 Sherpa release supports fitting of 1-D X-ray spectra from Chandra and other X-ray missions, as well as 1-D non-X-ray data, including ASCII data arrays, radial profiles, and lightcurves. The options for grating data analysis include fitting the spectrum with multiple response files required for overlapping orders in LETG observations. Modeling of 2-D spatial data is fully supported, including the PSF and exposure maps. User specified models can be added to Sherpa with advanced "user model" functionality.
SHTOOLS performs (among others) spherical harmonic transforms and reconstructions, rotations of spherical harmonic coefficients, and multitaper spectral analyses on the sphere. The package accommodates any standard normalization of the spherical harmonic functions ("geodesy" 4π normalized, Schmidt semi-normalized, orthonormalized, and unnormalized), and either real or complex spherical harmonics can be employed. Spherical harmonic transforms are calculated by exact quadrature rules using either (1) the sampling theorem of Driscoll and Healy (1994) where data are equally sampled (or spaced) in latitude and longitude, or (2) Gauss-Legendre quadrature. A least squares inversion routine for irregularly sampled data is included as well. The Condon-Shortley phase factor of (-1)m can be used or excluded with the associated Legendre functions. The spherical harmonic transforms are accurate to approximately degree 2800, corresponding to a spatial resolution of better than 4 arc minutes. Routines are included for performing localized multitaper spectral analyses and standard gravity calculations, such as computation of the geoid, and the determination of the potential associated with finite-amplitude topography. The routines are fast. Spherical harmonic transforms and reconstructions take on the order of 1 second for bandwidths less than 600 and about 3 minutes for bandwidths close to 2800.
Shwirl visualizes spectral data cubes with meaningful coloring methods. The program has been developed to investigate transfer functions, which combines volumetric elements (or voxels) to set the color, and graphics shaders, functions used to compute several properties of the final image such as color, depth, and/or transparency, as enablers for scientific visualization of astronomical data. The program uses Astropy (ascl:1304.002) to handle FITS files and World Coordinate System, Qt (and PyQt) for the user interface, and VisPy, an object-oriented Python visualization library binding onto OpenGL.
sic (Sparse Inpainting Code) generates Gaussian, isotropic CMB realizations, masks them, and recovers the large-scale masked data using sparse inpainting; it is written in Fortran90.
sick infers astrophysical parameters from noisy observed spectra. Phenomena that can alter the data (e.g., redshift, continuum, instrumental broadening, outlier pixels) are modeled and simultaneously inferred with the astrophysical parameters of interest. This package relies on emcee (ascl:1303.002); it is best suited for situations where a grid of model spectra already exists, and one would like to infer model parameters given some data.
SICON (Stokes Inversion based on COnvolutional Neural networks) provides a three-dimensional cube of thermodynamical and magnetic properties from the interpretation of two-dimensional maps of Stokes profiles by use of a convolutional neural network. In addition to being much faster than parallelized inversion codes, SICON, when trained on synthetic Stokes profiles from two numerical simulations of different structures of the solar atmosphere, also provided a three-dimensional view of the physical properties of the region of interest in geometrical height, and pressure and Wilson depression properties that are decontaminated from the blurring effect of instrumental point spread functions.
Self-Interacting Dark Matter (SIDM) is a hypothetical model for cold dark matter in the Universe. A strong interaction between dark matter particles introduce a different physics inside dark-matter haloes, making the density profile cored, reduce the number of subhaloes, and trigger gravothermal collapse. sidm-nbody is an N-body simulation code with Direct Simulation Monte Carlo scattering for self interaction, and some codes to analyse gravothermal collapse of isolated haloes. The N-body simulation is based on GADGET 1.1.
SiFTO is an empirical method for modeling Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves by manipulating a spectral template. We make use of high-redshift SN data when training the model, allowing us to extend it bluer than rest-frame U. This increases the utility of our high-redshift SN observations by allowing us to use more of the available data. We find that when the shape of the light curve is described using a stretch prescription, applying the same stretch at all wavelengths is not an adequate description. SiFTO therefore uses a generalization of stretch which applies different stretch factors as a function of both the wavelength of the observed filter and the stretch in the rest-frame B band. SiFTO has been compared to other published light-curve models by applying them to the same set of SN photometry, and it's been demonstrated that SiFTO and SALT2 perform better than the alternatives when judged by the scatter around the best-fit luminosity distance relationship. When SiFTO and SALT2 are trained on the same data set the cosmological results agree.
SIGPROC is a package designed to standardize the initial analysis of the many types of fast-sampled pulsar data. Currently recognized machines are the Wide Band Arecibo Pulsar Processor (WAPP), the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the Arecibo Observatory Fourier Transform Machine (AOFTM), the Berkeley Pulsar Processors (BPP), the Parkes/Jodrell 1-bit filterbanks (SCAMP) and the filterbank at the Ooty radio telescope (OOTY). The SIGPROC tools should help users look at their data quickly, without the need to write (yet) another routine to read data or worry about big/little endian compatibility (byte swapping is handled automatically).
The ESO's VLT/SPHERE instrument includes a unique long-slit spectroscopy (LSS) mode coupled with Lyot coronagraphy in its infrared dual-band imager and spectrograph (IRDIS) for spectral characterization of young, giant exoplanets detected by direct imaging. The SILSS pipeline is a combination of the official SPHERE pipeline and additional custom IDL routines developed within the SPHERE consortium for the speckle subtraction and spectral extraction of a companion's spectrum; it offers a complete end-to-end pipeline, from raw data (science+calibrations) to a final spectrum of the companion. SILSS works on both the low-resolution (LRS) and medium-resolution (MRS) data, and allows correction for some of the known biases of the instrument. Documentation is included in the header of the main routine of the pipeline.
The SIM5 library contains routines for relativistic raytracing and radiation transfer in GR. Written C with a Python interface, it has a special focus on raytracing from accretion disks, tori, hot spots or any other 3D configuration of matter in Kerr geometry, but it can be used with any other metric as well. It handles both optically thick and thin sources as well as transport of polarization of the radiation and calculates the propagation of light rays from the source to an observer through a curved spacetime. It supports parallelization and runs on GPUs.
SimCADO simulates observations with any NIR/Vis imaging system. Though the package was originally designed to simulate images for the European Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) and MICADO, with the proper input, it is capable of simulating observations from many different telescope and instrument configurations.
SimFast 21 generates a simulation of the cosmological 21cm signal. While limited to low spatial resolution, the next generation low-frequency radio interferometers that target 21 cm observations during the era of reionization and prior will have instantaneous fields-of-view that are many tens of square degrees on the sky. Predictions related to various statistical measurements of the 21 cm brightness temperature must then be pursued with numerical simulations of reionization with correspondingly large volume box sizes, of order 1000 Mpc on one side. The authors pursued a semi-numerical scheme to simulate the 21 cm signal during and prior to Reionization by extending a hybrid approach where simulations are performed by first laying down the linear dark matter density field, accounting for the non-linear evolution of the density field based on second-order linear perturbation theory as specified by the Zel'dovich approximation, and then specifying the location and mass of collapsed dark matter halos using the excursion-set formalism. The location of ionizing sources and the time evolving distribution of ionization field is also specified using an excursion-set algorithm. They account for the brightness temperature evolution through the coupling between spin and gas temperature due to collisions, radiative coupling in the presence of Lyman-alpha photons and heating of the intergalactic medium, such as due to a background of X-ray photons. The method is capable of producing the required large volume simulations with adequate resolution in a reasonable time so a large number of realizations can be obtained with variations in assumptions related to astrophysics and background cosmology that govern the 21 cm signal.
This is an implementation of a fairly simple-minded luminosity distance fitter, intended for use with supernova data. The calculational technique is based on evaluating the $chi^2$ of the model fit on a grid and marginalization over various nuisance parameters. Of course, the nature of these things is that this code has gotten steadily more complex, so perhaps the simple moniker is no longer justified.
SimpLens illustrates some of the theoretical ideas important in gravitational lensing in an interactive way. After setting parameters for elliptical mass distribution and external mass, SimpLens displays the mass profile and source position, the lens potential and image locations, and indicate the image magnifications and contours of virtual light-travel time. A lens profile can be made shallower or steeper with little change in the image positions and with only total magnification affected.
The R-package SimSpin measures the kinematics of a galaxy simulation as if it had been observed using an IFU. The functions included in the package can produce a kinematic data cube and measure the "observables" from this data cube, specifically the observable spin parameter λr. This package, once installed, is fully documented and tested.
simuTrans models transit light curves affected by gravity-darkened stars. The code defines a star on a grid by modeling the brightness of each point as blackbody emission, then sets a series of parameters and uses emcee (ascl:1303.002) to explore the posterior probability distribution for the remaining fitted parameters and determine their best-fit values.
SIMX simulates a photon-counting detector's response to an input source, including a simplified model of any telescope. The code is not a full ray-trace, but a convolution tool that uses standard descriptions of telescope PSF (via either a simple Gaussian parameter, an energy-dependent encircled-energy function, or an image of the PSF) and the detector response (using the OGIP response function) to model how sources will appear. simx uses a predefined set of PSFs, vignetting information, and instrumental responses and outputs to make the simulation. It is designed to be a 'approximation' tool to estimate issues such as source confusion, background effects, pileup, and other similar issues.
The SINFONI pipeline reduces data from the Very Large Telescope's SINFONI (Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared) instrument. It can evaluate the detector linearity and generate a corresponding non linear pixel map, create a master dark and a hot-pixel map, a master flat and a map of pixels which have intensities greater than a given threshold. It can also compute the optical distortions and slitlets distances, and perform wavelength calibration, PSF, telluric standard and other science data reduction, and can coadd bad pixel maps, collapse a cube to an image over a given wavelength range, perform cube arithmetics, among other useful tasks.
SofteningLength: Because Newton's law of Gravitation diverges as the relative separations |r'-r| tends to zero, it is common to add a positive constant λ also known as the "softening length", i.e. :
SingLe determines the appropriate value of this Softening Length λ for a given disc local structure (thickness 2h and vertical stratification ρ), in the axially symmetric, flat disc limit, preserving at best the Newtonian character of the gravitational potential and associated forces. Mass density ρ(z) is assumed to be locally expandable in the z-direction according to:
SIP (Systematics-Insensitive Periodograms) extends the generative model used to create traditional sine-fitting periodograms for finding the frequency of a sinusoid by including systematic trends based on a set of eigen light curves in the generative model in addition to using a sum of sine and cosine functions over a grid of frequencies, producing periodograms with vastly reduced systematic features. Acoustic oscillations in giant stars and measurement of stellar rotation periods can be recovered from the SIP periodograms without detrending. The code can also be applied to detection other periodic phenomena, including eclipsing binaries and short-period exoplanet candidates.
SIR is a general-purpose code capable of dealing with gradients of the physical quantities with height. It admits one and two-component model atmospheres. It allows the recovery of the stratification of the temperature, the magnetic field vector, and the line of sight velocity through the atmosphere, and the micro- and macroturbulence velocities - which are assumed to be constant with depth. It is based on the response functions, which enter a Marquardt nonlinear least-squares algorithm in a natural way. Response functions are calculated at the same time as the full radiative transfer equation for polarized light is integrated, which determines values of many free parameters in a reasonable computation time. SIR demonstrates high stability, accuracy, and uniqueness of results, even when simulated observations present signal-to-noise ratios of the order of the lowest acceptable values in real observations.
SITools2 is a CNES generic tool performed by a joint effort between CNES and scientific laboratories. SITools provides a self-manageable data access layer deployed on already existing scientific laboratory databases. This new version of SITools is a JAVA-based framework, under open source license, that provides a portable archive system, highly configurable, easy to use by laboratories, with a plugin mechanism so developers can add their own applications.
SIXTE simulates X-Ray telescope observation; the software performs instrument performance analyses and produces simulated event files for mission and analysis studies. SIXTE strives to find a compromise between exactness of the simulation and speed. Using calibration files such as the PSF, RMF and ARF makes efficient simulations possible at comparably high speed, even though they include nonlinear effects such as pileup. Setups for some current and future missions, such as XMM-Newton and Athena, are included in the package; others can be added by the user with relatively little effort through specifying the main instrument characteristics in a flexible, human-readable XML-based format. Properties of X-ray sources to be simulated are described in a detector-independent format, i.e., the same input can be used for simulating observations with all available instruments, and the same input can also be used for simulations with the SIMX simulator. The input files are easily generated from standard data such as XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) spectral models or FITS images with tools provided with the SIXTE distribution. The input data scale well from single point sources up to very complicated setups.
SKID finds gravitationally bound groups in N-body simulations. The SKID program will group different types of particles depending on the type of input binary file. This could be either dark matter particles, gas particles, star particles or gas and star particles depending on what is in the input tipsy binary file. Once groups with at least a certain minimum number of members have been determined, SKID will remove particles which are not bound to the group. SKID must use the original positions of all the particles to determine whether or not particles are bound. This procedure which we call unbinding, is again dependent on the type of grouping we are dealing with. There are two cases, one for dark matter only or star particles only (case 1 unbinding), the other for inputs including gas (also stars in a dark matter environment this is case 2 unbinding).
Skid version 1.3 is a much improved version of the old denmax-1.1 version. The new name was given to avoid confusion with the DENMAX program of Gelb & Bertschinger, and although it is based on the same idea it represents a substantial evolution in the method.
SKIRT is a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo technique. The name SKIRT, acronym for Stellar Kinematics Including Radiative Transfer, reflects the original motivation for its creation: it has been developed to study the effects of dust absorption and scattering on the observed kinematics of dusty galaxies. In a second stage, the SKIRT code was extended with a module to self-consistently calculate the dust emission spectrum under the assumption of local thermal equilibrium. This LTE version of SKIRT has been used to model the dust extinction and emission of various types of galaxies, as well as circumstellar discs and clumpy tori around active galactic nuclei. A new, extended version of SKIRT code can perform efficient 3D radiative transfer calculations including a self-consistent calculation of the dust temperature distribution and the associated FIR/submm emission with a full incorporation of the emission of transiently heated grains and PAH molecules.
Written in Fortran 90, Sky3D solves the static or dynamic equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian mesh with isolated or periodic boundary conditions and no further symmetry assumptions. Pairing can be included in the BCS approximation for the static case. The code can be easily modified to include additional physics or special analysis of the results and requires LAPACK and FFTW3.
SkyCat is a tool that combines visualization of images and access to catalogs and archive data for astronomy. The tool, developed in Tcl/Tk, was originally conceived as a demo of the capabilities of the class library that was developed for the VLT. The Skycat sources currently consist of five packages:
Skycorr is an instrument-independent sky subtraction code that uses physically motivated line group scaling in the reference sky spectrum by a fitting approach for an improved sky line removal in the object spectrum. Possible wavelength shifts between both spectra are corrected by fitting Chebyshev polynomials and advanced rebinning without resolution decrease. For the correction, the optimized sky line spectrum and the automatically separated sky continuum (without scaling) is subtracted from the input object spectrum. Tests show that Skycorr performs well (per cent level residuals) for data in different wavelength regimes and of different resolution, even in the cases of relatively long time lags between the object and the reference sky spectrum. Lower quality results are mainly restricted to wavelengths not dominated by airglow lines or pseudo continua by unresolved strong emission bands.
Skye detects a statistically significant excess clustering of transit times, indicating that there are likely systematics at specific times that cause many false positive detections, for the Kepler DR25 planet candidate catalog. The technique could be used for any survey looking to statistically cull false alarms.
Skyfield computes positions for the stars, planets, and satellites in orbit around the Earth. Its results should agree with the positions generated by the United States Naval Observatory and their Astronomical Almanac to within 0.0005 arcseconds (which equals half a “mas” or milliarcsecond). It computes geocentric coordinates or topocentric coordinates specific to your location on the Earth’s surface. Skyfield accepts AstroPy (ascl:1304.002) time objects as input and can return results in native AstroPy units but is not dependend on AstroPy nor its compiled libraries.
SkyMaker is a program that simulates astronomical images. It accepts object lists in ASCII generated by the Stuff program to produce realistic astronomical fields. SkyMaker is part of the EFIGI development project.
The general-purpose nuclear reaction network SkyNet evolves the abundances of nuclear species under the influence of nuclear reactions. SkyNet can be used to compute the nucleosynthesis evolution in all astrophysical scenarios where nucleosynthesis occurs. Any list of isotopes can be evolved and SkyNet supports various different types of nuclear reactions. SkyNet is modular, permitting new or existing physics, such as nuclear reactions or equations of state, to be easily added or modified.
SkyNet is an efficient and robust neural network training code for machine learning. It is able to train large and deep feed-forward neural networks, including autoencoders, for use in a wide range of supervised and unsupervised learning applications, such as regression, classification, density estimation, clustering and dimensionality reduction. SkyNet is implemented in C/C++ and fully parallelized using MPI.
The SkyView Virtual telescope provides access to survey datasets ranging from radio through the gamma-ray regimes. Over 100 survey datasets are currently available. The SkyView library referenced here is used as the basis for the SkyView web site (at http://skvyiew.gsfc.nasa.gov) but is designed for individual use by researchers as well.
SkyView's approach to access surveys is distinct from most other toolkits. Rather than providing links to the original data, SkyView attempts to immediately re-render the source data in the user-requested reference frame, projection, scaling, orientation, etc. The library includes a set of geometry transformation and mosaicking tools that may be integrated into other applications independent of SkyView.
SL1M deconvolves radio synthesis images based on direct inversion of the measured visibilities that can deal with the non-coplanar base line effect and can be applied to telescopes with direction dependent gains. The code is more computationally demanding than some existing methods, but is highly parallelizable and scale well to clusters of CPUs and GPUs. The algorithm is also extremely flexible, allowing the solution of the deconvolution problem on arbitrarily placed pixels.
SLALIB is a library of routines that make accurate and reliable positional-astronomy applications easier to write. Most SLALIB routines are concerned with astronomical position and time, but a number have wider trigonometrical, numerical or general applications. A Fortran implementation of SLALIB under GPL licensing is available as part of Starlink (ascl:1110.012).
SlicerAstro extends 3D Slicer, a multi-platform package for visualization and medical image processing, to provide a 3-D interactive viewer with 3-D human-machine interaction features, based on traditional 2-D input/output hardware, and analysis capabilities.
The semi-spectral linear MHD (SLiM) code follows the interaction of linear waves through an inhomogeneous three-dimensional solar atmosphere. The background model allows almost arbitrary perturbations of density, temperature, sound speed as well as magnetic and velocity fields. The code is useful in understanding the helioseismic signatures of various solar features, including sunspots.
Slim performs lossless compression on binary data files. Written in C++, it operates very rapidly and achieves better compression on noisy physics data than general-purpose tools designed primarily for text.
slimplectic is a python implementation of a numerical integrator that uses a fixed time-step variational integrator formalism applied to the principle of stationary nonconservative action. It allows nonconservative effects to be included in the numerical evolution while preserving the major benefits of normally conservative symplectic integrators, particularly the accurate long-term evolution of momenta and energy. slimplectic is appropriate for exploring cosmological or celestial N-body dynamics problems where nonconservative interactions, e.g. dynamical friction or dissipative tides, can play an important role.
SLIT (Sparse Lens Inversion Technique) provides a method for inversion of lensed images in the frame of strong gravitational lensing. The code requires the input image along with lens mass profile and a PSF. The user then has to chose a maximum number of iterations after which the algorithm will stop if not converged and a image size ratio to the input image to set the resolution of the reconstructed source. Results are displayed in pyplot windows.
SLOPES computes six least-squares linear regression lines for bivariate datasets of the form (x_i,y_i) with unknown population distributions. Measurement errors, censoring (nondetections) or other complications are not treated. The lines are: the ordinary least-squares regression of y on x, OLS(Y|X); the inverse regression of x on y, OLS(X_Y); the angular bisector of the OLS lines; the orthogonal regression line; the reduced major axis, and the mean-OLS line. The latter four regressions treat the variables symmetrically, while the first two regressions are asymmetrical. Uncertainties for the regression coefficients of each method are estimated via asymptotic formulae, bootstrap resampling, and bivariate normal simulation. These methods, derivation of the regression coefficient uncertainties, and discussions of their use are provided in three papers listed below. The user is encouraged to read and reference these studies.
Stellar Locus Regression (SLR) is a simple way to calibrate colors at the 1-2% level, and magnitudes at the sub-5% level as limited by 2MASS, without the traditional use of standard stars. With SLR, stars in any field are "standards." This is an entirely new way to calibrate photometry. SLR exploits the simple fact that most stars lie along a well defined line in color-color space called the stellar locus. Cross-match point-sources in flattened images taken through different passbands and plot up all color vs color combinations, and you will see the stellar locus with little effort. SLR calibrates colors by fitting these colors to a standard line. Cross-match with 2MASS on top of that, and SLR will deliver calibrated magnitudes as well.
The effects of stochasticity on the luminosities of stellar populations are an often neglected but crucial element for understanding populations in the low mass or low star formation rate regime. To address this issue, we present SLUG, a new code to "Stochastically Light Up Galaxies". SLUG synthesizes stellar populations using a Monte Carlo technique that treats stochastic sampling properly including the effects of clustering, the stellar initial mass function, star formation history, stellar evolution, and cluster disruption. This code produces many useful outputs, including i) catalogs of star clusters and their properties, such as their stellar initial mass distributions and their photometric properties in a variety of filters, ii) two dimensional histograms of color-magnitude diagrams of every star in the simulation, iii) and the photometric properties of field stars and the integrated photometry of the entire simulated galaxy. After presenting the SLUG algorithm in detail, we validate the code through comparisons with starburst99 in the well-sampled regime, and with observed photometry of Milky Way clusters. Finally, we demonstrate the SLUG's capabilities by presenting outputs in the stochastic regime.
SMART is an IDL-based software tool, developed by the IRS Instrument Team at Cornell University, that allows users to reduce and analyze Spitzer data from all four modules of the Infrared Spectrograph, including the peak-up arrays. The software is designed to make full use of the ancillary files generated in the Spitzer Science Center pipeline so that it can either remove or flag artifacts and corrupted data and maximize the signal-to-noise ratio in the extraction routines. It can be run in both interactive and batch modes. SMART includes visualization tools for assessing data quality, basic arithmetic operations for either two-dimensional images or one-dimensional spectra, extraction of both point and extended sources, and a suite of spectral analysis tools.
SMARTIES calculates the optical properties of oblate and prolate spheroidal particles, with comparable capabilities and ease-of-use as Mie theory for spheres. This suite of MATLAB codes provides a fully documented implementation of an improved T-matrix algorithm for the theoretical modelling of electromagnetic scattering by particles of spheroidal shape. Included are scripts that cover a range of scattering problems relevant to nanophotonics and plasmonics, including calculation of far-field scattering and absorption cross-sections for fixed incidence orientation, orientation-averaged cross-sections and scattering matrix, surface-field calculations as well as near-fields, wavelength-dependent near-field and far-field properties, and access to lower-level functions implementing the T-matrix calculations, including the T-matrix elements which may be calculated more accurately than with competing codes.
Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) is IDL software and a compiled external library that fits an observed high-resolution stellar spectrum with a synthetic spectrum to determine stellar parameters. The SME external library is available for Mac, Linux, and Windows systems. Atomic and molecular line data formatted for SME may be obtained from VALD. SME can solve for empirical log(gf) and damping parameters, using an observed spectrum of a star (usually the Sun) as a constraint.
SMERFS (Stochastic Markov Evaluation of Random Fields on the Sphere) creates large realizations of random fields on the sphere. It uses a fast algorithm based on Markov properties and fast Fourier Transforms in 1d that generates samples on an n X n grid in O(n2 log n) and efficiently derives the necessary conditional covariance matrices.
SMILE is interactive software for studying a variety of 2D and 3D models, including arbitrary potentials represented by a basis-set expansion, a spherical-harmonic expansion with coefficients being smooth functions of radius (splines), or a set of fixed point masses. Its main features include:
SMILI uses sparse sampling techniques and other regularization methods for interferometric imaging. The python-interfaced library is mainly designed for very long baseline interferometry, and has been under the active development primarily for the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT).
SMMOL (Spherical Multi-level MOLecular line radiative transfer) is a molecular line radiative transfer code that uses Accelerated Lambda Iteration to solve the coupled level population and line transfer problem in spherical geometry. The code uses a discretized grid and a ray tracing methodology. SMMOL is designed for high optical depth regimes and can cope with maser emission as long as the spatial-velocity sampling is fine enough.
SMURF reduces submillimeter single-dish continuum and heterodyne data. It is mainly targeted at data produced by the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope but data from other telescopes have been reduced using the package. SMURF is released as part of the bundle that comprises Starlink (ascl:1110.012) and most of the packages that use it. The two key commands are MAKEMAP for the creation of maps from sub millimeter continuum data and MAKECUBE for the creation of data cubes from heterodyne array instruments. The software can also convert data from legacy JCMT file formats to the modern form to allow it to be processed by MAKECUBE. SMURF is a core component of the ORAC-DR (ascl:1310.001) data reduction pipeline for JCMT.
SNANA is a general analysis package for supernova (SN) light curves that contains a simulation, light curve fitter, and cosmology fitter. The software is designed with the primary goal of using SNe Ia as distance indicators for the determination of cosmological parameters, but it can also be used to study efficiencies for analyses of SN rates, estimate contamination from non-Ia SNe, and optimize future surveys. Several SN models are available within the same software architecture, allowing technical features such as K-corrections to be consistently used among multiple models, and thus making it easier to make detailed comparisons between models. New and improved light-curve models can be easily added. The software works with arbitrary surveys and telescopes and has already been used by several collaborations, leading to more robust and easy-to-use code. This software is not intended as a final product release, but rather it is designed to undergo continual improvements from the community as more is learned about SNe.
SNAPDRAGONS (Stellar Numbers And Parameters Determined Routinely And Generated Observing N-body Systems) is a simplified version of the population synthesis code Galaxia (ascl:1101.007), using a different process to generate the stellar catalog. It splits each N-body particle from the galaxy simulation into an appropriate number of stellar particles to create a mock catalog of observable stars from the N-body model. SNAPDRAGON uses the same isochrones and extinction map as Galaxia.
SNCosmo synthesizes supernova spectra and photometry from SN models, and has functions for fitting and sampling SN model parameters given photometric light curve data. It offers fast implementations of several commonly used extinction laws and can be used to construct SN models that include dust. The SNCosmo library includes supernova models such as SALT2, MLCS2k2, Hsiao, Nugent, PSNID, SNANA and Whalen models, as well as a variety of built-in bandpasses and magnitude systems, and provides convenience functions for reading and writing peculiar data formats used in other packages. The library is extensible, allowing new models, bandpasses, and magnitude systems to be defined using an object-oriented interface.
SNEC (SuperNova Explosion Code) is a spherically-symmetric Lagrangian radiation-hydrodynamics code that follows supernova explosions through the envelope of their progenitor star, produces bolometric (and approximate multi-color) light curve predictions, and provides input to spectral synthesis codes for spectral modeling. SNEC's features include 1D (spherical) Lagrangian Newtonian hydrodynamics with artificial viscosity, stellar equation of state with a Saha solver ionization/recombination, equilibrium flux-limited photon diffusion with OPAL opacities and low-temperature opacities, and prediction of bolometric light curves and multi-color lightcurves (in the blackbody approximation).
We present an algorithm to identify the type of an SN spectrum and to determine its redshift and age. This algorithm, based on the correlation techniques of Tonry & Davis, is implemented in the Supernova Identification (SNID) code. It is used by members of ongoing high-redshift SN searches to distinguish between type Ia and type Ib/c SNe, and to identify "peculiar" SNe Ia. We develop a diagnostic to quantify the quality of a correlation between the input and template spectra, which enables a formal evaluation of the associated redshift error. Furthermore, by comparing the correlation redshifts obtained using SNID with those determined from narrow lines in the SN host galaxy spectrum, we show that accurate redshifts (with a typical error less than 0.01) can be determined for SNe Ia without a spectrum of the host galaxy. Last, the age of an input spectrum is determined with a typical 3-day accuracy, shown here by using high-redshift SNe Ia with well-sampled light curves. The success of the correlation technique confirms the similarity of some SNe Ia at low and high redshifts. The SNID code, which is available to the community, can also be used for comparative studies of SN spectra, as well as comparisons between data and models.
Snoopy is a spectral 3D code that solves the MHD and Boussinesq equations, such as compressibility, particles, and Braginskii viscosity, and several other physical effects. It's useful for turbulence study involving shear and rotation. Snoopy requires the FFTW library (ascl:1201.015), and can run on parallel machine using MPI OpenMP or both at the same time.
The SNooPy package (also known as SNpy), written in Python, contains tools for the analysis of TypeIa supernovae. It offers interactive plotting of light-curve data and models (and spectra), computation of reddening laws and K-corrections, LM non-linear least-squares fitting of light-curve data, and various types of spline fitting, including Diercx and tension. The package also includes a SNIa lightcurve template generator in the CSP passbands, estimates of Milky-Way Extinction, and a module for dealing with filters and spectra.
SNRPy (Super Nova Remnant Python) models supernova remnant (SNR) evolution and is useful for understanding SNR evolution and to model observations of SNR for obtaining good estimates of SNR properties. It includes all phases for the standard path of evolution for spherically symmetric SNRs and includes alternate evolutionary models, including evolution in a cloudy ISM, the fractional energy loss model, and evolution in a hot low-density ISM. The graphical interface takes in various parameters and produces outputs such as shock radius and velocity vs. time, SNR surface brightness profile and spectrum.
SNSEDextend extrapolates core-collapse and Type Ia Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) into the UV and IR for use in simulations and photometric classifications. The user provides a library of existing SED templates (such as those in the authors' SN SED Repository) along with new photometric constraints in the UV and/or NIR wavelength ranges. The software then extends the existing template SEDs so their colors match the input data at all phases. SNSEDextend can also extend the SALT2 spectral time-series model for Type Ia SN for a "first-order" extrapolation of the SALT2 model components, suitable for use in survey simulations and photometric classification tools; as the code does not do a rigorous re-training of the SALT2 model, the results should not be relied on for precision applications such as light curve fitting for cosmology.
Supernova Time Delays (SNTD) simulates and measures time delay of multiply-imaged supernovae, and offers an improved characterization of the uncertainty caused by microlensing. Lensing time delays can be determined by fitting the multiple light curves of these objects; measuring these delays provide precise tests of lens models or constraints on the Hubble constant and other cosmological parameters that are independent of the local distance ladder. Fitting the effects of microlensing without an accurate prior often leads to biases in the time delay measurement and over-fitting to the data; this can be mitigated by using a Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) technique to determine the uncertainty due to microlensing. SNTD can produce accurate simulations for wide-field time domain surveys such as LSST and WFIRST.
SOAP (Spot Oscillation And Planet) 2.0 simulates the effects of dark spots and bright plages on the surface of a rotating star, computing their expected radial velocity and photometric signatures. It includes the convective blueshift and its inhibition in active regions.
SOFA (Standards Of Fundamental Astronomy) is a collection of subprograms, in source-code form, that implement official IAU algorithms for fundamental astronomy computations. SOFA offers more than 160 routines for fundamental astronomy, including time scales (including dealing with leap seconds), Earth rotation, sidereal time, precession, nutation, polar motion, astrometry and transforms between various reference systems (e.g. BCRS, ICRS, GCRS, CIRS, TIRS, ITRS). The subprograms are supported by 55 vector/matrix routines, and are available in both Fortran77 and C implementations.
SoFiA is a flexible source finding pipeline designed to detect and parameterise sources in 3D spectral-line data cubes. SoFiA combines several powerful source finding and parameterisation algorithms, including wavelet denoising, spatial and spectral smoothing, source mask optimisation, spectral profile fitting, and calculation of the reliability of detections. In addition to source catalogues in different formats, SoFiA can also generate a range of output data cubes and images, including source masks, moment maps, sub-cubes, position-velocity diagrams, and integrated spectra. The pipeline is controlled by simple parameter files and can either be invoked on the command line or interactively through a modern graphical user interface.
SoFiAX is a web-based platform to merge and interact with the results of parallel execution of SoFiA HI source finding software [ascl:1412.001] and other steps of processing ASKAP Wallaby HI survey data.
SolarSoft is a set of integrated software libraries, data bases, and system utilities which provide a common programming and data analysis environment for Solar Physics. The SolarSoftWare (SSW) system is built from Yohkoh, SOHO, SDAC and Astronomy libraries and draws upon contributions from many members of those projects. It is primarily an IDL based system, although some instrument teams integrate executables written in other languages. The SSW environment provides a consistent look and feel at widely distributed co-investigator institutions to facilitate data exchange and to stimulate coordinated analysis. Commonalities and overlap in solar data and analysis goals are exploited to permit application of fundamental utilities to the data from many different solar instruments. The use of common libraries, utilities, techniques and interfaces minimizes the learning curve for investigators who are analyzing new solar data sets, correlating results from multiple experiments or performing research away from their home institution.
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