KAPPA comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualization, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format--the NDF. It works with Starlink's various specialized packages; in addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the "on-the-fly" conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. KAPPA uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).
Based on the freely available CHIANTI (ascl:9911.004) database and software, KAPPA synthesizes line and continuum spectra from the optically thin spectra that arise from collisionally dominated astrophysical plasmas that are the result of non-Maxwellian κ-distributions detected in the solar transition region and flares. Ionization and recombination rates together with the ionization equilibria are provided for a range of κ values. Distribution-averaged collision strengths for excitation are obtained by an approximate method for all transitions in all ions available within CHIANTI; KAPPA also offers tools for calculating synthetic line and continuum intensities.
The Kapteyn Package provides tools for the development of astronomical applications with Python. It handles spatial and spectral coordinates, WCS projections and transformations between different sky systems; spectral translations (e.g., between frequencies and velocities) and mixed coordinates are also supported. Kapteyn offers versatile tools for writing small and dedicated applications for the inspection of FITS headers, the extraction and display of (FITS) data, interactive inspection of this data (color editing) and for the creation of plots with world coordinate information. It includes utilities for use with matplotlib such as obtaining coordinate information from plots, interactively modifiable colormaps and timer events (module mplutil); tools for parsing and interpreting coordinate information entered by the user (module positions); a function to search for gaussian components in a profile (module profiles); and a class for non-linear least squares fitting (module kmpfit).
Karma is a toolkit for interprocess communications, authentication, encryption, graphics display, user interface and manipulating the Karma network data structure. It contains KarmaLib (the structured libraries and API) and a large number of modules (applications) to perform many standard tasks. A suite of visualisation tools are distributed with the library.
KAULAKYS calculates cross sections and rate coefficients for inelastic collisions between Rydberg atoms and hydrogen atoms according to the free electron model of Kaulakys (1986, 1991). It is written in IDL and requires the code MSWAVEF (ascl:1701.006) to calculate momentum-space wavefunctions. KAULAKYS can be easily adapted to collisions with perturbers other than hydrogen atoms by providing the appropriate scattering amplitudes.
kcorrect fits very restricted spectral energy distribution models to galaxy photometry or spectra in the restframe UV, optical and near-infrared. The main purpose of the fits are for calculating K-corrections. The templates used for the fits may also be interpreted physically, since they are based on the Bruzual-Charlot stellar evolution synthesis codes. Thus, for each fit galaxy kcorrect can provide an estimate of the stellar mass-to-light ratio.
KEPLER is a general purpose stellar evolution/explosion code that incorporates implicit hydrodynamics and a detailed treatment of nuclear burning processes. It has been used to study the complete evolution of massive and supermassive stars, all major classes of supernovae, hydrostatic and explosive nucleosynthesis, and x- and gamma-ray bursts on neutron stars and white dwarfs.
KeplerSolver solves Kepler's equation for arbitrary epoch and eccentricity, using continued fractions. It is written in C and its speed is nearly the same as the SWIFT routines, while achieving machine precision. It comes with a test program to demonstrate usage.
KERN is a bi-annually released set of radio astronomical software packages. It should contain most of the standard tools that a radio astronomer needs to work with radio telescope data. The goal of KERN to is to save time and frustration in setting up of scientific pipelines, and to assist in achieving scientific reproducibility.
ketu, written in Python, searches K2 light curves for evidence of exoplanets; the code simultaneously fits for systematic effects caused by small (few-pixel) drifts in the telescope pointing and other spacecraft issues and the transit signals of interest. Though more computationally expensive than standard search algorithms, it can be efficiently implemented and used to discover transit signals.
KINEMETRY, written in IDL, analyzes 2D maps of the moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD). It generalizes the surface photometry to all moments of the LOSVD. It performs harmonic expansion of 2D maps of observed moments (surface brightness, velocity, velocity dispersion, h3, h4, etc.) along the best fitting ellipses (either fixed or free to change along the radii) to robustly quantify maps of the LOSVD moments, describe trends in structures, and detect morphological and kinematic sub-components.
The use of graphics processing units offers an attractive alternative to specialized hardware, like GRAPE. The Kirin library mimics the behavior of the GRAPE hardware and uses the GPU to execute the force calculations. It is compatible with the GRAPE6 library; existing code that uses the GRAPE6 library can be recompiled and relinked to use the GPU equivalents of the GRAPE6 functions. All functions in the GRAPE6 library have an equivalent GPU implementation. Kirin can be used for direct N-body simulations as well as for treecodes; it can be run with shared-time steps or with block time-steps and allows non-softened potentials. As Kirin makes use of CUDA, it works only on NVIDIA GPUs.
We present Kliko, a Docker based container specification for running one or multiple related compute jobs. The key concepts of Kliko is the encapsulation of data processing software into a container and the formalisation of the input, output and task parameters. Formalisation is realised by bundling a container with a Kliko file, which describes the IO and task parameters. This Kliko container can then be opened and run by a Kliko runner. The Kliko runner will parse the Kliko definition and gather the values for these parameters, for example by requesting user input or pre defined values in a script. Parameters can be various primitive types, for example float, int or the path to a file. This paper will also discuss the implementation of a support library named Kliko which can be used to create Kliko containers, parse Kliko definitions, chain Kliko containers in workflows using, for example, Luigi a workflow manager. The Kliko library can be used inside the container interact with the Kliko runner. Finally this paper will discuss two reference implementations based on Kliko: RODRIGUES, a web based Kliko container schedular and output visualiser specifically for astronomical data, and VerMeerKAT, a multi container workflow data reduction pipeline which is being used as a prototype pipeline for the commisioning of the MeerKAT radio telescope.
KMDWARFPARAM estimates the physical parameters of a star with mass M < 0.8 M_sun given one or more observational constraints. The code runs a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo procedure to estimate the parameter values and their uncertainties.
The kozai Python package evolves hierarchical triple systems in the secular approximation. As its name implies, the kozai package is useful for studying Kozai-Lidov oscillations. The kozai package can represent and evolve hierarchical triples using either the Delaunay orbital elements or the angular momentum and eccentricity vectors. kozai contains functions to calculate the period of Kozai-Lidov oscillations and the maximum eccentricity reached; it also contains a module to study octupole order effects by averaging over individual Kozai-Lidov oscillations.
Kranc turns a tensorial description of a time dependent partial differential equation into a module for the Cactus Computational Toolkit (ascl:1102.013). This Mathematica application takes a simple continuum description of a problem and generates highly efficient and portable code, and can be used both for rapid prototyping of evolution systems and for high performance supercomputing.
KROME, given a chemical network (in CSV format), automatically generates all the routines needed to solve the kinetics of the system modeled as a system of coupled Ordinary Differential Equations. It provides a large set of physical processes connected to chemistry, including photochemistry, cooling, heating, dust treatment, and reverse kinetics. KROME is flexible and can be used for a wide range of astrophysical simulations. The package contains a network for primordial chemistry, a small metal network appropriate for the modeling of low metallicities environments, a detailed network for the modeling of molecular clouds, and a network for planetary atmospheres as well as a framework for the modelling of the dust grain population.
KS Intergration solves for mutual photometric effects produced by planets and spots allowing for analysis of planetary occultations of spots and spots regions. It proceeds by identifying integrable and non integrable arcs on the objects profiles and analytically calculates the solution exploiting the power of Kelvin-Stokes theorem. It provides the solution up to the second degree of the limb darkening law.
KSTAT calculates the 2 and 3-point correlation functions in discreet point data. These include the two-point correlation function in 2 and 3-dimensions, the anisotripic 2PCF decomposed in either sigma-pi or Kazin's dist. mu projection.
The 3-point correlation function can also work in anisotropic coordinates (currently under development). The code is based on kd-tree structures and is parallelized using a mixture of MPI and OpenMP.
I created these codes as I have found it difficult in the past find similar ones freely available in the public domain. I hope to keep developing them, so please send me bug fixes,suggestions, comments/criticisms to firstname.lastname@example.org
kungifu is a set of IDL software routines designed for the calibration and reduction of fiber-fed integral-field unit (IFU) astronomical spectroscopy. These routines can perform optimal extraction of IFU data and allow relative and absolute wavelength calibration to within a few hundredths of a pixel (for unbinned data) across 1200-2000 fibers. kungifu does nearly Poisson-limited sky subtraction, even in the I band, and can rebin in wavelength. The Princeton IDLUTILS and IDLSPEC2D packages must be installed for kungifu to run.
L-PICOLA generates and evolves a set of initial conditions into a dark matter field and can include primordial non-Gaussianity in the simulation and simulate the past lightcone at run-time, with optional replication of the simulation volume. It is a fast, distributed-memory, planar-parallel code. L-PICOLA is extremely useful for both current and next generation large-scale structure surveys.
Conventional algorithms for rejecting cosmic rays in single CCD exposures rely on the contrast between cosmic rays and their surroundings and may produce erroneous results if the point-spread function is smaller than the largest cosmic rays. This code uses a robust algorithm for cosmic-ray rejection, based on a variation of Laplacian edge detection. The algorithm identifies cosmic rays of arbitrary shapes and sizes by the sharpness of their edges and reliably discriminates between poorly sampled point sources and cosmic rays. Examples of its performance are given for spectroscopic and imaging data, including Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images, in the code paper.
LACEwING (LocAting Constituent mEmbers In Nearby Groups) uses the kinematics (positions and motions) of stars to determine if they are members of one of 10 nearby young moving groups or 4 nearby open clusters within 100 parsecs. It is written for Python 2.7 and depends upon Numpy, Scipy, and Astropy (ascl:1304.002) modules. LACEwING can be used as a stand-alone code or as a module in other code. Additional python programs are present in the repository for the purpose of recalibrating the code and producing other analyses, including a traceback analysis.
LAMBDAR measures galaxy fluxes from an arbitrary FITS image, covering an arbitrary photometric wave-band, when provided all parameters needed to construct galactic apertures at the required locations for multi-band matched aperture galactic photometry. Through sophisticated matched aperture photometry, the package develops robust Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) and accurately establishes the physical properties of galactic objects. LAMBDAR was based on a package detailed in Bourne et al. (2012) that determined galactic fluxes in low resolution Herschel images.
LAMDA provides users of radiative transfer codes with the basic atomic and molecular data needed for the excitation calculation. Line data of a number of astrophysically interesting species are summarized, including energy levels, statistical weights, Einstein A-coefficients and collisional rate coefficients. Available collisional data from quantum chemical calculations and experiments are in some cases extrapolated to higher energies. Currently the database contains atomic data for 3 species and molecular data for 28 different species. In addition, several isotopomers and deuterated versions are available. This database should form an important tool in analyzing observations from current and future infrared and (sub)millimetre telescopes. Databases such as these rely heavily on the efforts by the chemical physics community to provide the relevant atomic and molecular data. Further efforts in this direction are strongly encouraged so that the current extrapolations of collisional rate coefficients can be replaced by actual calculations in future releases.
RADEX, a computer program for performing statistical equilibrium calculations is made publicly available as part of the data base.
LANL* calculates the magnetic drift invariant L*, used for modeling radiation belt dynamics and other space weather applications, six orders of magnitude (~ one million times) faster than convectional approaches that require global numerical field lines tracing and integration. It is based on a modern machine learning technique (feed-forward artificial neural network) by supervising a large data pool obtained from the IRBEM library, which is the traditional source for numerically calculating the L* values. The pool consists of about 100,000 samples randomly distributed within the magnetosphere (r: [1.03, 11.5] Re) and within a whole solar cycle from 1/1/1994 to 1/1/2005. There are seven LANL* models, each corresponding to its underlying magnetic field configuration that is used to create the data sample pool. This model has applications to real-time radiation belt forecasting, analysis of data sets involving tens of satellite-years of observations, and other problems in space weather.
Larch is an open-source library and toolkit written in Python for processing and analyzing X-ray spectroscopic data. The primary emphasis is on X-ray spectroscopic and scattering data collected at modern synchrotron sources. Larch provides a wide selection of general-purpose processing, analysis, and visualization tools for processing X-ray data; its related target application areas include X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) maps, quantitative X-ray fluorescence, X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), and X-ray standing waves and surface scattering. Larch provides a complete set of XAFS Analysis tools and has support for visualizing and analyzing XRF maps and spectra, and additional tools for X-ray spectral analysis, data handling, and general-purpose data modeling.
Lare3d is a Lagrangian-remap code for solving the non-linear MHD equations in three spatial dimensions.
The Lattimer-Swesty Equation of State code is rapid enough to use directly in hydrodynamical simulations such as stellar collapse calculations. It contains an adjustable nuclear force that accurately models both potential and mean-field interactions and allows for the input of various nuclear parameters, including the bulk incompressibility parameter, the bulk and surface symmetry energies, the symmetric matter surface tension, and the nucleon effective masses. This permits parametric studies of the equation of state in astrophysical situations. The equation of state is modeled after the Lattimer, Lamb, Pethick, and Ravenhall (LLPR) compressible liquid drop model for nuclei, and includes the effects of interactions and degeneracy of the nucleon outside nuclei.
LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model) is an accurate line-by-line model that is efficient and highly flexible. LBLRTM attributes provide spectral radiance calculations with accuracies consistent with the measurements against which they are validated and with computational times that greatly facilitate the application of the line-by-line approach to current radiative transfer applications. LBLRTM has been extensively validated against atmospheric radiance spectra from the ultra-violet to the sub-millimeter.
LBLRTM's heritage is in FASCODE [Clough et al., 1981, 1992].
LDC3 samples physically permissible limb darkening coefficients for the Sing et al. (2009) three-parameter law. It defines the physically permissible intensity profile as being everywhere-positive, monotonically decreasing from center to limb and having a curl at the limb. The approximate sampling method is analytic and thus very fast, reproducing physically permissible samples in 97.3% of random draws (high validity) and encompassing 94.4% of the physically permissible parameter volume (high completeness).
Least Asymmetry finds the center of a distribution of light in an image using the least asymmetry method; the code also contains center of light and fitting a Gaussian routines. All functions in Least Asymmetry are designed to take optional weights.
LECTOR is a Fortran 77 code that measures line-strengths in one dimensional ascii spectra. The code returns the values of the Lick indices as well as those of Vazdekis & Arimoto 1999, Vazdekis et al. 2001, Rose 1994, Jones & Worthey 1995 and Cenarro et al. 2001. The code measures as many indices as you wish if the limits of two pseudocontinua (at each side of the feature) and the feature itself (i.e. Lick-style index definition) are provided. The Lick-style indices could be either expressed in pseudo-equivalent widths or in magnitudes. If requested the program provides index error estimates on the basis of photon statistics.
Lensed performs forward parametric modelling of strong lenses. Using a provided model, Lensed renders the expected image of the lensing event for a large number of parameter settings, thereby exploring the space of possible realizations of the observation. It compares the expectation to the observed image by calculating the likelihood that the observation was indeed produced by the assumed model, thus reconstructing the probability distribution over the parameter space of the model. Written in C, the code uses a massively parallel ray-tracing kernel to perform the necessary calculations on a graphics processing unit (GPU), making the precise rendering of the background lensed sources fast and allowing the simultaneous optimization of tens of parameters for the selected model.
LensEnt2 is a maximum entropy reconstructor of weak lensing mass maps. The method takes each galaxy shape as an independent estimator of the reduced shear field and incorporates an intrinsic smoothness, determined by Bayesian methods, into the reconstruction. The uncertainties from both the intrinsic distribution of galaxy shapes and galaxy shape estimation are carried through to the final mass reconstruction, and the mass within arbitrarily shaped apertures are calculated with corresponding uncertainties. The input is a galaxy ellipticity catalog with each measured galaxy shape treated as a noisy tracer of the reduced shear field, which is inferred on a fine pixel grid assuming positivity, and smoothness on scales of w arcsec where w is an input parameter. The ICF width w can be chosen by computing the evidence for it.
Given a model for the Galaxy, this program computes the microlensing rate in any direction. Program features include the ability to include the brightness of the lens and to compute the probability of lens detection at any level of lensing amplification. The program limits itself to lensing by single stars of single sources. The program is currently setup to accept input from the Galactic models of Bahcall and Soniera (1982, 1986).
There are three files needed for LENSKY, the Fortran file lensky.for and two input files: galmod.dsk (15 Megs) and galmod.sph (22 Megs). The zip file available below contains all three files. The program generates output to the file lensky.out. The program is pretty self-explanatory past that.
LensPerfect is a new approach to the massmap reconstruction of strong gravitational lenses. Conventional methods iterate over possible lens models which reproduce the observed multiple image positions well but not exactly. LensPerfect only produces solutions which fit all of the data exactly. Magnifications and shears of the multiple images can also be perfectly constrained to match observations.
Modelling of the weak lensing of the CMB will be crucial to obtain correct cosmological parameter constraints from forthcoming precision CMB anisotropy observations. The lensing affects the power spectrum as well as inducing non-Gaussianities. We discuss the simulation of full sky CMB maps in the weak lensing approximation and describe a fast numerical code. The series expansion in the deflection angle cannot be used to simulate accurate CMB maps, so a pixel remapping must be used. For parameter estimation accounting for the change in the power spectrum but assuming Gaussianity is sufficient to obtain accurate results up to Planck sensitivity using current tools. A fuller analysis may be required to obtain accurate error estimates and for more sensitive observations. We demonstrate a simple full sky simulation and subsequent parameter estimation at Planck-like sensitivity.
LensPop simulates observations of the galaxy-galaxy strong lensing population in the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and Euclid surveys.
We describe a procedure for modelling strong lensing galaxy clusters with parametric methods, and to rank models quantitatively using the Bayesian evidence. We use a publicly available Markov chain Monte-Carlo (MCMC) sampler ('Bayesys'), allowing us to avoid local minima in the likelihood functions. To illustrate the power of the MCMC technique, we simulate three clusters of galaxies, each composed of a cluster-scale halo and a set of perturbing galaxy-scale subhalos. We ray-trace three light beams through each model to produce a catalogue of multiple images, and then use the MCMC sampler to recover the model parameters in the three different lensing configurations. We find that, for typical Hubble Space Telescope (HST)-quality imaging data, the total mass in the Einstein radius is recovered with ~1-5% error according to the considered lensing configuration. However, we find that the mass of the galaxies is strongly degenerated with the cluster mass when no multiple images appear in the cluster centre. The mass of the galaxies is generally recovered with a 20% error, largely due to the poorly constrained cut-off radius. Finally, we describe how to rank models quantitatively using the Bayesian evidence. We confirm the ability of strong lensing to constrain the mass profile in the central region of galaxy clusters in this way. Ultimately, such a method applied to strong lensing clusters with a very large number of multiple images may provide unique geometrical constraints on cosmology.
LensTools implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing, including tools for image analysis, statistical processing and numerical theory predictions. The package offers many useful features, including complete flexibility and easy customization of input/output formats; efficient measurements of power spectrum, PDF, Minkowski functionals and peak counts of convergence maps; survey masks; artificial noise generation engines; easy to compute parameter statistical inferences; ray tracing simulations; and many others. It requires standard numpy and scipy, and depending on tools used, may require Astropy (ascl:1304.002), emcee (ascl:1303.002), matplotlib, and mpi4py.
Lensview models resolved gravitational lens systems based on LensMEM but using the Skilling & Bryan MEM algorithm. Though its primary purpose is to find statistically acceptable lens models for lensed images and to reconstruct the surface brightness profile of the source, LENSVIEW can also be used for more simple tasks such as projecting a given source through a lens model to generate a “true” image by conserving surface brightness. The user can specify complicated lens models based on one or more components, such as softened isothermal ellipsoids, point masses, exponential discs, and external shears; LENSVIEW generates a best-fitting source matching the observed data for each specific combination of model parameters.
LePHARE is a set of Fortran commands to compute photometric redshifts and to perform SED fitting. The latest version includes new features with FIR fitting and a more complete treatment of physical parameters and uncertainties based on PÉGASE and Bruzual & Charlot population synthesis models. The program is based on a simple chi2 fitting method between the theoretical and observed photometric catalogue. A simulation program is also available in order to generate realistic multi-colour catalogues taking into account observational effects.
The Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) was one of two complementary spectrometers on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). LIA (LWS Interactive Analysis) is used for processing data from the LWS. It provides access to the different processing steps, including visualization of intermediate products and interactive manipulation of the data at each stage.
Libimf provides a collection of programming functions based on the general IMF-algorithm by Pflamm-Altenburg & Kroupa (2006).
libnova is a general purpose, double precision, celestial mechanics, astrometry and astrodynamics library. Among many other calculations, it can calculate aberration, apparent position, proper motion, planetary positions, orbit velocities and lengths, angular separation of bodies, and hyperbolic motion of bodies.
Libpolycomp compresses and decompresses one-dimensional streams of numbers by means of several algorithms. It is well-suited for time-ordered data acquired by astronomical instruments or simulations. One of the algorithms, called "polynomial compression", combines two widely-used ideas (namely, polynomial approximation and filtering of Fourier series) to achieve substantial compression ratios for datasets characterized by smoothness and lack of noise. Notable examples are the ephemerides of astronomical objects and the pointing information of astronomical telescopes. Other algorithms implemented in this C library are well known and already widely used, e.g., RLE, quantization, deflate (via libz) and Burrows-Wheeler transform (via libbzip2). Libpolycomp can compress the timelines acquired by the Planck/LFI instrument with an overall compression ratio of ~9, while other widely known programs (gzip, bzip2) reach compression ratios less than 1.5.
libprofit is a C++ library for image creation based on different luminosity profiles. It offers fast and accurate two-dimensional integration for a useful number of profiles, including Sersic, Core-Sersic, broken-exponential, Ferrer, Moffat, empirical King, point-source and sky, with a simple mechanism for adding new profiles. libprofit provides a utility to read the model and profile parameters from the command-line and generate the corresponding image. It can output the resulting image as text values, a binary stream, or as a simple FITS file. It also provides a shared library exposing an API that can be used by any third-party application. R and Python interfaces are available: ProFit (ascl:1612.004) and PyProfit (ascl:1612.005).
Libpsht (or "library for Performing Spherical Harmonic Transforms") is a collection of algorithms for efficient conversion between spatial-domain and spectral-domain representations of data defined on the sphere. The package supports transforms of scalars as well as spin-1 and spin-2 quantities, and can be used for a wide range of pixelisations (including HEALPix, GLESP and ECP). It will take advantage of hardware features like multiple processor cores and floating-point vector operations, if available. Even without this additional acceleration, the employed algorithms are among the most efficient (in terms of CPU time as well as memory consumption) currently being used in the astronomical community.
The library is written in strictly standard-conforming C90, ensuring portability to many different hard- and software platforms, and allowing straightforward integration with codes written in various programming languages like C, C++, Fortran, Python etc.
Libpsht is distributed under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 2.
Development on this project has ended; its successor is libsharp (ascl:1402.033).
Libsharp is a collection of algorithms for efficient conversion between maps on the sphere and their spherical harmonic coefficients. It supports a wide range of pixelisations (including HEALPix, GLESP, and ECP). This library is a successor of libpsht; it adds MPI support for distributed memory systems and SHTs of fields with arbitrary spin, and also supports new developments in CPU instruction sets like the Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) or fused multiply-accumulate (FMA) instructions. libsharp is written in portable C99; it provides an interface accessible to other programming languages such as C++, Fortran, and Python.
In this era of Big Data enormous amount of data are collected every day. Besides the others, the light curves are one of the most common product of the observations of the universe gathered by the astronomical instruments. The most fundamental task is to classify them - to identify what kind of objects are observed. Despite of the efforts to categorize particular light curves, there is no
tool which unifies the procedures related to the classification into one powerful instrument.
We present the Light Curves Classifier - ”self-learning” program which utilizes modern instruments of data mining and machine
learning in order to obtain and classify desired objects by using various methods. This task can be accomplished by attributes of
light curves (or any time series) - shapes, histograms, variograms etc, or also by other available information about the inspected
objects as color indexes, temperatures, abundances etc. After specifying of features which describe searched objects, the program
is capable to learn on given train sample. Moreover unsupervised clustering can be used for visualizing of natural separation of the
sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example number of hidden neurons,
binning ratio, etc.).
Trained classifiers can be used for filtering of outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. Also this tool can
be used just for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. There are several connectors
available - OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO. Moreover there are no limits in applying new connectors
or descriptors. For example by using interfaces for TAP and Vizier database, new connectors are implemented just by few lines of
the code (e.g. MACHO connector is implemented just by 7 lines of the code).
All these databases have common interface which could be used for unified queries with the standardized output. Besides direct
usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used thorough the web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training”
methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and
connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations
are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised
clustering. One can click on points representing objects in the feature space and visualize their light curves and other informations.
For the purposes of the visualization higher dimensions of features can be transformed by PCA.
Lightcone works with simulated galaxy data stored in a relational database to rearrange the data in a shape of a light-cone; simulated galaxy data is expected to be in a box volume. The light-cone constructing script works with output from the SAGE semi-analytic model (ascl:1601.006), but will work with any other model that has galaxy positions (and other properties) saved per snapshots of the simulation volume distributed in time. The database configuration file is set up for PostgreSQL RDBMS, but can be modified for use with any other SQL database.
LightcurveMC is a versatile and easily extended simulation suite for testing the performance of time series analysis tools under controlled conditions. It is designed to be highly modular, allowing new lightcurve types or new analysis tools to be introduced without excessive development overhead. The statistical tools are completely agnostic to how the lightcurve data is generated, and the lightcurve generators are completely agnostic to how the data will be analyzed. The use of fixed random seeds throughout guarantees that the program generates consistent results from run to run.
LightcurveMC can generate periodic light curves having a variety of shapes and stochastic light curves having a variety of correlation properties. It features two error models (Gaussian measurement and signal injection using a randomized sample of base light curves), testing of C1 shape statistic, periodograms, ΔmΔt plots, autocorrelation function plots, peak-finding plots, and Gaussian process regression. The code is written in C++ and R.
LIME solves the molecular and atomic excitation and radiation transfer problem in a molecular gas and predicting emergent spectra. The code works in arbitrary three dimensional geometry using unstructured Delaunay latices for the transport of photons. Various physical models can be used as input, ranging from analytical descriptions over tabulated models to SPH simulations. To generate the Delaunay grid we sample the input model randomly, but weigh the sample probability with the molecular density and other parameters, and thereby we obtain an average grid point separation that scales with the local opacity. Slow convergence of opaque models becomes traceable; when convergence between the level populations, the radiation field, and the point separation has been obtained, the grid is ray-traced to produced images that can readily be compared to observations. LIME is particularly well suited for modeling of ALMA data because of the high dynamic range in scales that can be resolved using this type of grid, and can furthermore deal with overlapping lines of multiple molecular and atomic species.
LineProf implements a series of line-profile analysis indicators and evaluates its correlation with RV data. It receives as input a list of Cross-Correlation Functions and an optional list of associated RV. It evaluates the line-profile according to the indicators and compares it with the computed RV if no associated RV is provided, or with the provided RV otherwise.
LIRA (LInear Regression in Astronomy) performs Bayesian linear regression that accounts for heteroscedastic errors in both the independent and the dependent variables, intrinsic scatters (in both variables), time evolution of slopes, normalization and scatters, Malmquist and Eddington bias, and break of linearity. The posterior distribution of the regression parameters is sampled with a Gibbs method exploiting the JAGS (ascl:1209.002) library.
LIRA (Low-counts Image Reconstruction and Analysis) deconvolves any unknown sky components, provides a fully Poisson 'goodness-of-fit' for any best-fit model, and quantifies uncertainties on the existence and shape of unknown sky. It does this without resorting to χ2 or rebinning, which can lose high-resolution information. It is written in R and requires the FITSio package.
LISACode is a simulator of the LISA mission. Its ambition is to achieve a new degree of sophistication allowing to map, as closely as possible, the impact of the different subsystems on the measurements. Its also a useful tool for generating realistic data including several kind of sources (Massive Black Hole binaries, EMRIs, cosmic string cusp, stochastic background, etc) and for preparing their analysis. It’s fully integrated to the Mock LISA Data Challenge. LISACode is not a detailed simulator at the engineering level but rather a tool whose purpose is to bridge the gap between the basic principles of LISA and a future, sophisticated end-to-end simulator.
Lizard is an extensible Cyclomatic Complexity Analyzer for many imperative programming languages including C/C++.
LMC is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo engine in Python that implements adaptive Metropolis-Hastings and slice sampling, as well as the affine-invariant method of Goodman & Weare, in a flexible framework. It can be used for simple problems, but the main use case is problems where expensive likelihood evaluations are provided by less flexible third-party software, which benefit from parallelization across many nodes at the sampling level. The parallel/adaptive methods use communication through MPI, or alternatively by writing/reading files, and mostly follow the approaches pioneered by CosmoMC (ascl:1106.025).
Lmfit provides a high-level interface to non-linear optimization and curve fitting problems for Python. Lmfit builds on and extends many of the optimization algorithm of scipy.optimize, especially the Levenberg-Marquardt method from optimize.leastsq. Its enhancements to optimization and data fitting problems include using Parameter objects instead of plain floats as variables, the ability to easily change fitting algorithms, and improved estimation of confidence intervals and curve-fitting with the Model class. Lmfit includes many pre-built models for common lineshapes.
LORENE (Langage Objet pour la RElativité NumériquE) solves various problems arising in numerical relativity, and more generally in computational astrophysics. It is a set of C++ classes and provides tools to solve partial differential equations by means of multi-domain spectral methods. LORENE classes implement basic structures such as arrays and matrices, but also abstract mathematical objects, such as tensors, and astrophysical objects, such as stars and black holes.
LOSP is a FORTRAN77 numerical package that computes the orbital parameters of spectroscopic binaries. The package deals with SB1 and SB2 systems and is able to adjust either circular or eccentric orbits through a weighted fit.
LOSSCONE computes the rates of capture of stars by supermassive black holes. It uses a stationary and time-dependent solutions for the Fokker-Planck equation describing the evolution of the distribution function of stars due to two-body relaxation, and works for arbitrary spherical and axisymmetric galactic models that are provided by the user in the form of M(r), the cumulative mass as a function of radius.
We present a set of low resolution empirical SED templates for AGNs and galaxies in the wavelength range from 0.03 to 30 microns based on the multi-wavelength photometric observations of the NOAO Deep-Wide Field Survey Bootes field and the spectroscopic observations of the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey. Our training sample is comprised of 14448 galaxies in the redshift range 0<~z<~1 and 5347 likely AGNs in the range 0<~z<~5.58. We use our templates to determine photometric redshifts for galaxies and AGNs. While they are relatively accurate for galaxies, their accuracies for AGNs are a strong function of the luminosity ratio between the AGN and galaxy components. Somewhat surprisingly, the relative luminosities of the AGN and its host are well determined even when the photometric redshift is significantly in error. We also use our templates to study the mid-IR AGN selection criteria developed by Stern et al.(2005) and Lacy et al.(2004). We find that the Stern et al.(2005) criteria suffers from significant incompleteness when there is a strong host galaxy component and at z =~ 4.5, when the broad Halpha emission line is redshifted into the [3.6] band, but that it is little contaminated by low and intermediate redshift galaxies. The Lacy et al.(2004) criterion is not affected by incompleteness at z =~ 4.5 and is somewhat less affected by strong galaxy host components, but is heavily contaminated by low redshift star forming galaxies. Finally, we use our templates to predict the color-color distribution of sources in the upcoming WISE mission and define a color criterion to select AGNs analogous to those developed for IRAC photometry. We estimate that in between 640,000 and 1,700,000 AGNs will be identified by these criteria, but will have serious completeness problems for z >~ 3.4.
LP-VIcode computes variational chaos indicators (CIs) quickly and easily. The following CIs are included:
This software computes likelihoods for the Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG) data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). It includes a patch to the existing CAMB software (the February 2009 release) to calculate the theoretical LRG halo power spectrum for various models. The code is written in Fortran 90 and has been tested with the Intel Fortran 90 and GFortran compilers.
LRGS (Linear Regression by Gibbs Sampling) implements a Gibbs sampler to solve the problem of multivariate linear regression with uncertainties in all measured quantities and intrinsic scatter. LRGS extends an algorithm by Kelly (2007) that used Gibbs sampling for performing linear regression in fairly general cases in two ways: generalizing the procedure for multiple response variables, and modeling the prior distribution of covariates using a Dirichlet process.
The Large Survey Database (LSD) is a Python framework and DBMS for distributed storage, cross-matching and querying of large survey catalogs (>10^9 rows, >1 TB). The primary driver behind its development is the analysis of Pan-STARRS PS1 data. It is specifically optimized for fast queries and parallel sweeps of positionally and temporally indexed datasets. It transparently scales to more than >10^2 nodes, and can be made to function in "shared nothing" architectures.
LSDCat is a conceptually simple but robust and efficient detection package for emission lines in wide-field integral-field spectroscopic datacubes. The detection utilizes a 3D matched-filtering approach for compact single emission line objects. Furthermore, the software measures fluxes and extents of detected lines. LSDCat is implemented in Python, with a focus on fast processing of large data-volumes.
LSSGALPY provides visualization tools to compare the 3D positions of a sample (or samples) of isolated systems with respect to the locations of the large-scale structures galaxies in their local and/or large scale environments. The interactive tools use different projections in the 3D space (right ascension, declination, and redshift) to study the relation of the galaxies with the LSS. The tools permit visualization of the locations of the galaxies for different values of redshifts and redshift ranges; the relationship of isolated galaxies, isolated pairs, and isolated triplets to the galaxies in the LSS can be visualized for different values of the declinations and declination ranges.
LTL provides dynamic arrays of up to 7-dimensions, subarrays and slicing, support for fixed-size vectors and matrices including basic linear algebra operations, expression templates-based evaluation, and I/O facilities for ascii and FITS format files. Utility classes for command-line processing and configuration-file processing are provided as well.
LTS_LINEFIT and LTS_PLANEFIT are IDL programs to robustly fit lines and planes to data with intrinsic scatter. The code combines the Least Trimmed Squares (LTS) robust technique, proposed by Rousseeuw (1984) and optimized in Rousseeuw & Driessen (2006), into a least-squares fitting algorithm which allows for intrinsic scatter. This method makes the fit converge to the correct solution even in the presence of a large number of catastrophic outliers, where the much simpler σ-clipping approach can converge to the wrong solution.
LumFunc is a numerical code to model the Luminosity Function based on central galaxy luminosity-halo mass and total galaxy luminosity-halo mass relations. The code can handle rest b_J-band (2dFGRS), r'-band (SDSS), and K-band luminosities, and any redshift with redshift dependences specified by the user. It separates the luminosity function (LF) to conditional luminosity functions, LF as a function of halo mass, and also to galaxy types. By specifying a narrow mass range, the code will return the conditional luminosity functions. The code returns luminosity functions for galaxy types as well (broadly divided to early-type and late-type). The code also models the cluster luminosity function, either mass averaged or for individual clusters.
LZIFU (LaZy-IFU) is an emission line fitting pipeline for integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data. Written in IDL, the pipeline turns IFS data to 2D emission line flux and kinematic maps for further analysis. LZIFU has been applied and tested extensively to various IFS data, including the SAMI Galaxy Survey, the Wide-Field Spectrograph (WiFeS), the CALIFA survey, the S7 survey and the MUSE instrument on the VLT.
Photometric rotational modulations due to starspots remain the most common and accessible way to study stellar activity. Modelling rotational modulations allows one to invert the observations into several basic parameters, such as the rotation period, spot coverage, stellar inclination and differential rotation rate. The most widely used analytic model for this inversion comes from Budding (1977) and Dorren (1987), who considered circular, grey starspots for a linearly limb darkened star. That model is extended to be more suitable in the analysis of high precision photometry such as that by Kepler. Macula, a Fortran 90 code, provides several improvements, such as non-linear limb darkening of the star and spot, a single-domain analytic function, partial derivatives for all input parameters, temporal partial derivatives, diluted light compensation, instrumental offset normalisations, differential rotation, starspot evolution and predictions of transit depth variations due to unocculted spots. The inclusion of non-linear limb darkening means macula has a maximum photometric error an order-of-magnitude less than that of Dorren (1987) for Sun-like stars observed in the Kepler-bandpass. The code executes three orders-of-magnitude faster than comparable numerical codes making it well-suited for inference problems.
MADCOW is a set of parallelized programs written in ANSI C and Fortran 77 that perform a maximum likelihood analysis of visibility data from interferometers observing the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. This software has been used to produce power spectra of the CMB with the Very Small Array (VSA) telescope.
MADmap is a software application used to produce maximum-likelihood images of the sky from time-ordered data which include correlated noise, such as those gathered by Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments. It works efficiently on platforms ranging from small workstations to the most massively parallel supercomputers. Map-making is a critical step in the analysis of all CMB data sets, and the maximum-likelihood approach is the most accurate and widely applicable algorithm; however, it is a computationally challenging task. This challenge will only increase with the next generation of ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite CMB polarization experiments. The faintness of the B-mode signal that these experiments seek to measure requires them to gather enormous data sets. MADmap has the ability to address problems typically encountered in the analysis of realistic CMB data sets. The massively parallel and distributed implementation is detailed and scaling complexities are given for the resources required. MADmap is capable of analysing the largest data sets now being collected on computing resources currently available.
Many astrophysical phenomena are highly subsonic, requiring specialized numerical methods suitable for long-time integration. In a series of earlier papers we described the development of MAESTRO, a low Mach number stellar hydrodynamics code that can be used to simulate long-time, low-speed flows that would be prohibitively expensive to model using traditional compressible codes. MAESTRO is based on an equation set derived using low Mach number asymptotics; this equation set does not explicitly track acoustic waves and thus allows a significant increase in the time step. MAESTRO is suitable for two- and three-dimensional local atmospheric flows as well as three-dimensional full-star flows. Here, we continue the development of MAESTRO by incorporating adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The primary difference between MAESTRO and other structured grid AMR approaches for incompressible and low Mach number flows is the presence of the time-dependent base state, whose evolution is coupled to the evolution of the full solution. We also describe how to incorporate the expansion of the base state for full-star flows, which involves a novel mapping technique between the one-dimensional base state and the Cartesian grid, as well as a number of overall improvements to the algorithm. We examine the efficiency and accuracy of our adaptive code, and demonstrate that it is suitable for further study of our initial scientific application, the convective phase of Type Ia supernovae.
The R suite magicaxis makes useful and pretty plots for scientific plotting and includes functions for base plotting, with particular emphasis on pretty axis labelling in a number of circumstances that are often used in scientific plotting. It also includes functions for generating images and contours that reflect the 2D quantile levels of the data designed particularly for output of MCMC posteriors where visualizing the location of the 68% and 95% 2D quantiles for covariant parameters is a necessary part of the post MCMC analysis, can generate low and high error bars, and allows clipping of values, rejection of bad values, and log stretching.
MAGIX provides an interface between existing codes and an iterating engine that minimizes deviations of the model results from available observational data; it constrains the values of the model parameters and provides corresponding error estimates. Many models (and, in principle, not only astrophysical models) can be plugged into MAGIX to explore their parameter space and find the set of parameter values that best fits observational/experimental data. MAGIX complies with the data structures and reduction tools of Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), but can be used with other astronomical and with non-astronomical data.
Large-scale coherent magnetic fields are observed in galaxies and clusters, but their ultimate origin remains a mystery. We reconsider the prospects for primordial magnetogenesis by a cosmic string network. We show that the magnetic flux produced by long strings has been overestimated in the past, and give improved estimates. We also compute the fields created by the loop population, and find that it gives the dominant contribution to the total magnetic field strength on present-day galactic scales. We present numerical results obtained by evolving semi-analytic models of string networks (including both one-scale and velocity-dependent one-scale models) in a Lambda-CDM cosmology, including the forces and torques on loops from Hubble redshifting, dynamical friction, and gravitational wave emission. Our predictions include the magnetic field strength as a function of correlation length, as well as the volume covered by magnetic fields. We conclude that string networks could account for magnetic fields on galactic scales, but only if coupled with an efficient dynamo amplification mechanism.
Magnetron, written in Python, decomposes magnetar bursts into a superposition of small spike-like features with a simple functional form, where the number of model components is itself part of the inference problem. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling and reversible jumps between models with different numbers of parameters are used to characterize the posterior distributions of the model parameters and the number of components per burst.
MAGPHYS is a self-contained, user-friendly model package to interpret observed spectral energy distributions of galaxies in terms of galaxy-wide physical parameters pertaining to the stars and the interstellar medium. MAGPHYS is optimized to derive statistical constraints of fundamental parameters related to star formation activity and dust content (e.g. star formation rate, stellar mass, dust attenuation, dust temperatures) of large samples of galaxies using a wide range of multi-wavelength observations. A Bayesian approach is used to interpret the SEDs all the way from the ultraviolet/optical to the far-infrared.
MAH calculates the posterior distribution of the "minimum atmospheric height" (MAH) of an exoplanet by inputting the joint posterior distribution of the mass and radius. The code collapses the two dimensions of mass and radius into a one dimensional term that most directly speaks to whether the planet has an atmosphere or not. The joint mass-radius posteriors derived from a fit of some exoplanet data (likely using MCMC) can be used by MAH to evaluate the posterior distribution of R_MAH, from which the significance of a non-zero R_MAH (i.e. an atmosphere is present) is calculated.
MaLTPyNT (Matteo's Libraries and Tools in Python for NuSTAR Timing) provides a quick-look timing analysis of NuSTAR data, properly treating orbital gaps and exploiting the presence of two independent detectors by using the cospectrum as a proxy for the power density spectrum. The output of the analysis is a cospectrum, or a power density spectrum, that can be fitted with XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) or ISIS (ascl:1302.002). The software also calculates time lags. Though written for NuSTAR data, MaLTPyNT can also perform standard spectral analysis on X-ray data from other satellite such as XMM-Newton and RXTE.
Mangle is a suite of software designed to deal accurately and efficiently with complex angular masks, such as occur typically in galaxy surveys. Mangle performs the following tasks:
The MapCUMBA package applies a multigrid fast iterative Jacobi algorithm for map-making in the context of CMB experiments.
MapCurvature, written in IDL, can create map projections with Goldberg-Gott indicatrices. These indicatrices measure the flexion and skewness of a map, and are useful for determining whether features are faithfully reproduced on a particular projection.
MAPPINGS III is a general purpose astrophysical plasma modelling code. It is principally intended to predict emission line spectra of medium and low density plasmas subjected to different levels of photoionization and ionization by shockwaves. MAPPINGS III tracks up to 16 atomic species in all stages of ionization, over a useful range of 102 to 108 K. It treats spherical and plane parallel geometries in equilibrium and time-dependent models. MAPPINGS III is useful for computing models of HI and HII regions, planetary nebulae, novae, supernova remnants, Herbig-Haro shocks, active galaxies, the intergalactic medium and the interstellar medium in general. The present version of MAPPINGS III is a large FORTRAN program that runs with a simple TTY interface for historical and portability reasons.
With the commissioning of the second MAGIC gamma-ray Cherenkov telescope situated close to MAGIC-I, the standard analysis package of the MAGIC collaboration, MARS, has been upgraded in order to perform the stereoscopic reconstruction of the detected atmospheric showers. MARS is a ROOT-based code written in C++, which includes all the necessary algorithms to transform the raw data recorded by the telescopes into information about the physics parameters of the observed targets. An overview of the methods for extracting the basic shower parameters is presented, together with a description of the tools used in the background discrimination and in the estimation of the gamma-ray source spectra.
MARX (Model of AXAF Response to X-rays) is a suite of programs designed to enable the user to simulate the on-orbit performance of the Chandra satellite. MARX provides a detailed ray-trace simulation of how Chandra responds to a variety of astrophysical sources and can generate standard FITS events files and images as output. It contains models for the HRMA mirror system onboard Chandra as well as the HETG and LETG gratings and all focal plane detectors.
MARZ analyzes objects and produces high quality spectroscopic redshift measurements. Spectra not matched correctly by the automatic algorithm can be redshifted manually by cycling automatic results, manual template comparison, or marking spectral features. The software has an intuitive interface and powerful automatic matching capabilities on spectra, and can be run interactively or from the command line, and runs as a Web application. MARZ can be run on a local server; it is also available for use on a public server.
The detection of B-mode polarization in the CMB is one of the most important outstanding tests of inflationary cosmology. One of the necessary steps for extracting polarization information in the CMB is reducing contamination from so-called "ambiguous modes" on a masked sky, which contain leakage from the larger E-mode signal. This can be achieved by utilising derivative operators on the real-space Stokes Q and U parameters. This paper presents an algorithm and a software package to perform this procedure on the nearly full sky, i.e., with projects such as the Planck Surveyor and future satellites in mind; in particular, the package can perform finite differences on masked, irregular grids and is applied to a semi-regular spherical pixellization, the HEALPix grid. The formalism reduces to the known finite-difference solutions in the case of a regular grid. We quantify full-sky improvements on the possible bounds on the CMB B-mode signal. We find that in the specific case of E and B-mode separation, there exists a "pole problem" in our formalism which produces signal contamination at very low multipoles l. Several solutions to the "pole problem" are presented; one proposed solution facilitates a calculation of a general Gaussian quadrature scheme, which finds application in calculating accurate harmonic coefficients on the HEALPix sphere. Nevertheless, on a masked sphere the software represents a considerable reduction in B-mode noise from limited sky coverage.
MASSCLEAN is a sophisticated and robust stellar cluster image and photometry simulation package. This package is able to create color-magnitude diagrams and standard FITS images in any of the traditional optical and near-infrared bands based on cluster characteristics input by the user, including but not limited to distance, age, mass, radius and extinction. At the limit of very distant, unresolved clusters, we have checked the integrated colors created in MASSCLEAN against those from other simple stellar population (SSP) models with consistent results. Because the algorithm populates the cluster with a discrete number of tenable stars, it can be used as part of a Monte Carlo Method to derive the probabilistic range of characteristics (integrated colors, for example) consistent with a given cluster mass and age.
massconvert, written in Fortran, provides driver and fitting routines for converting halo mass definitions from one spherical overdensity to another assuming an NFW density profile. In surveys that probe ever lower cluster masses and temperatures, sample variance is generally comparable to or greater than shot noise and thus cannot be neglected in deriving precision cosmological constraints; massconvert offers an accurate fitting formula for the conversion between different definitions of halo mass.
MATCH matches up items in two different lists, which can have two different systems of coordinates. The program allows the two sets of coordinates to be related by a linear, quadratic, or cubic transformation. MATCH was designed and written to work on lists of stars and other astronomical objects but can be applied to other types of data. In order to match two lists of N points, the main algorithm calls for O(N^6) operations; though not the most efficient choice, it does allow for arbitrary translation, rotation, and scaling.
The MATLAB package for astronomy and astrophysics is a collection of software tools and modular functions for astronomy and astrophysics, written in the MATLAB environment. It includes over 700 MATLAB functions and a few tens of data files and astronomical catalogs. The scripts cover a wide range of subjects including: astronomical image processing, ds9 control, astronomical spectra, optics and diffraction phenomena, catalog retrieval and searches, celestial maps and projections, Solar System ephemerides, planar and spherical geometry, time and coordinates conversion and manipulation, cosmology, gravitational lensing, function fitting, general utilities, plotting utilities, statistics, and time series analysis.
A discrete Point Spread Function (PSF) is a sampled version of a continuous two-dimensional PSF. The shape information about the photon scattering pattern of a discrete PSF is typically encoded using a numerical table (matrix) or a FITS image file. MATPHOT shifts discrete PSFs within an observational model using a 21-pixel- wide damped sinc function and position partial derivatives are computed using a five-point numerical differentiation formula. MATPHOT achieves accurate and precise stellar photometry and astrometry of undersampled CCD observations by using supersampled discrete PSFs that are sampled two, three, or more times more finely than the observational data.
Mayavi is an open-source, general-purpose, 3D scientific visualization package. It seeks to provide easy and interactive tools for data visualization that fit with the scientific user's workflow. Mayavi provides several entry points: a full-blown interactive application; a Python library with both a MATLAB-like interface focused on easy scripting and a feature-rich object hierarchy; widgets associated with these objects for assembling in a domain-specific application, and plugins that work with a general purpose application-building framework.
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