Results 301-400 of 2452 (2411 ASCL, 41 submitted)
CausticFrog models the reaction of a system of orbiting particles to instantaneous mass loss. It applies to any spherically symmetric potential, and follows the radial evolution of shells of mass. CausticFrog tracks the inner and outer edge of each shell, whose radius evolves as a test particle. The amount of mass in each shell is fixed but multiple shells can overlap leading to higher densities.
CCDPACK contains programs to debias, remove dark current, flatfield, register, resample and normalize data from single- or multiple-CCD instruments. The basic reduction stages can be set up using an X based GUI that controls an automated reduction system so one can to start working without any detailed knowledge of the package (or indeed of CCD reduction). Registration is performed using graphical, script based or automated techniques that keep the amount of work to a minimum. CCDPACK uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).
Ccdproc is an affiliated package for the AstroPy package for basic data reductions of CCD images. The ccdproc package provides many of the necessary tools for processing of ccd images built on a framework to provide error propagation and bad pixel tracking throughout the reduction process.
CCDtoRGB produces red‐green‐blue (RGB) composites from three‐band astronomical images, ensuring an object with a specified astronomical color has a unique color in the RGB image rather than burnt‐out white stars. Use of an arcsinh stretch shows faint objects while simultaneously preserving the structure of brighter objects in the field, such as the spiral arms of large galaxies.
CCFpams allows the measurement of stellar temperature, metallicity and gravity within a few seconds and in a completely automated fashion. Rather than performing comparisons with spectral libraries, the technique is based on the determination of several cross-correlation functions (CCFs) obtained by including spectral features with different sensitivity to the photospheric parameters. Literature stellar parameters of high signal-to-noise (SNR) and high-resolution HARPS spectra of FGK Main Sequence stars are used to calibrate the stellar parameters as a function of CCF areas.
The Core Cosmology Library (CCL) computes basic cosmological observables and provides predictions for many cosmological quantities, including distances, angular power spectra, correlation functions, halo bias and the halo mass function through state-of-the-art modeling prescriptions. Fiducial specifications for the expected galaxy distributions for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are also included, together with the capability of computing redshift distributions for a user-defined photometric redshift model. Predictions for correlation functions of galaxy clustering, galaxy-galaxy lensing and cosmic shear are within a fraction of the expected statistical uncertainty of the observables for the models and in the range of scales of interest to LSST. CCL is written in C and has a python interface.
This suite contains two packages for computing cosmological quantities on the GPU: aperture_mass, which calculates the aperture mass map for a given dataset using the filter proposed by Schirmer et al (2007) (an NFW profile with exponential cut-offs at zero and large radii), and angular_correlation, which calculates the 2-pt angular correlation function using data and a flat distribution of randomly generated galaxies. A particular estimator is chosen, but the user has the flexibility to explore other estimators.
CCSNMultivar aids the analysis of core-collapse supernova gravitational waves. It includes multivariate regression of Fourier transformed or time domain waveforms, hypothesis testing for measuring the influence of physical parameters, and the Abdikamalov et. al. catalog for example use. CCSNMultivar can optionally incorporate additional uncertainty due to detector noise and approximate waveforms from anywhere within the parameter space.
CDAWeb (Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop Web) enables viewing essentially any data produced in Common Data Format/CDF with the ISTP/IACG Guidelines and supports interactive plotting of variables from multiple instruments on multiple investigations simultaneously on arbitrary, user-defined time-scales. It also supports data retrieval in both CDF or ASCII format. NASA's GSFC Space Physics Data Facility maintains a publicly available database that includes approximately 600 data variables from Geotail, Wind, Interball, Polar, SOHO, ancilliary spacecraft and ground-based investigations. CDAWeb includes high resolution digital data products that support event correlative science. The system combines the client-server user interface technology of the Web with a powerful set of customized routines based in the COTS Interactive Data Language (IDL) package to leverage the data format standards.
cdetools provides tools for evaluating conditional density estimates and has applications to photometric redshift estimation and likelihood-free cosmological inference. Available in R and Python, it provides functions for computing a so-called CDE loss function for tuning and assessing the quality of individual probability density functions (PDFs) and diagnostic functions that probe the population-level performance of the PDFs.
celerite provides fast and scalable Gaussian Process (GP) Regression in one dimension and is implemented in C++, Python, and Julia. The celerite API is designed to be familiar to users of george and, like george, celerite is designed to efficiently evaluate the marginalized likelihood of a dataset under a GP model. This is then be used alongside a non-linear optimization or posterior inference library for the best results.
The R package Celestial contains common astronomy conversion routines, particularly the HMS and degrees schemes, and a large range of functions for calculating properties of different cosmologies (as used by the cosmocalc website). This includes distances, ages, growth rate/factor and densities (e.g., Omega evolution and critical energy density). It also includes functions for calculating thermal properties of the CMB and Planck's equations and virial properties of halos in different cosmologies, and standard NFW and weak-lensing formulas and low level orbital routines for calculating Roche properties, Vis-Viva and free-fall times.
CELib (Chemical Evolution Library) simulates chemical evolution of galaxy formation under the simple stellar population (SSP) approximation and can be used by any simulation code that uses the SSP approximation, such as particle-base and mesh codes as well as semi-analytical models. Initial mass functions, stellar lifetimes, yields from type II and Ia supernovae, asymptotic giant branch stars, and neutron star mergers components are included and a variety of models are available for use. The library allows comparisons of the impact of individual models on the chemical evolution of galaxies by changing control flags and parameters of the library.
centerRadon finds the center of stars based on Radon Transform to sub-pixel precision. For a coronagraphic image of a star, it starts from a given location, then for each sub-pixel position, it interpolates the image and sums the pixels along different angles, creating a cost function. The center of the star is expected to correspond with where the cost function maximizes. The default values are set for the STIS coronagraphic images of the Hubble Space Telescope by summing over the diagonals (i.e., 45° and 135°), but it can be generally applied to other high-contrast imaging instruments with or without Adaptive Optics systems such as HST-NICMOS, P1640, or GPI.
Ceph_code fits multi-band Cepheid light-curves using templates derived from OGLE observations. The templates include short period stars (<10 day) and overtone stars.
The Collection of Extraction Routines for Echelle Spectra (CERES) constructs automated pipelines for the reduction, extraction, and analysis of echelle spectrograph data. This modular code includes tools for handling the different steps of the processing: CCD reductions, tracing of the echelle orders, optimal and simple extraction, computation of the wave-length solution, estimation of radial velocities, and rough and fast estimation of the atmospheric parameters. The standard output of pipelines constructed with CERES is a FITS cube with the optimally extracted, wavelength calibrated and instrumental drift-corrected spectrum for each of the science images. Additionally, CERES includes routines for the computation of precise radial velocities and bisector spans via the cross-correlation method, and an automated algorithm to obtain an estimate of the atmospheric parameters of the observed star.
The Cesam code is a consistent set of programs and routines which perform calculations of 1D quasi-hydrostatic stellar evolution including microscopic diffusion of chemical species and diffusion of angular momentum. The solution of the quasi-static equilibrium is performed by a collocation method based on piecewise polynomials approximations projected on a B-spline basis; that allows stable and robust calculations, and the exact restitution of the solution, not only at grid points, even for the discontinuous variables. Other advantages are the monitoring by only one parameter of the accuracy and its improvement by super-convergence. An automatic mesh refinement has been designed for adjusting the localisations of grid points according to the changes of unknowns. For standard models, the evolution of the chemical composition is solved by stiffly stable schemes of orders up to four; in the convection zones mixing and evolution of chemical are simultaneous. The solution of the diffusion equation employs the Galerkin finite elements scheme; the mixing of chemicals is then performed by a strong turbulent diffusion. A precise restoration of the atmosphere is allowed for.
The Core Flight Executive is a portable, platform-independent embedded system framework that is the basis for flight software for satellite data systems and instruments; cFE can be used on other embedded systems as well. The Core Flight Executive is written in C and depends on the software library Operating System Abstraction Layer (OSAL), which is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/osal/.
CFITSIO is a library of C and Fortran subroutines for reading and writing data files in FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) data format. CFITSIO provides simple high-level routines for reading and writing FITS files that insulate the programmer from the internal complexities of the FITS format. CFITSIO also provides many advanced features for manipulating and filtering the information in FITS files.
cFS is a platform and project independent reusable software framework and set of reusable applications developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. There are three key aspects to the cFS architecture: a dynamic run-time environment, layered software, and a component based design, making it suitable for reuse on NASA flight projects and/or embedded software systems. This framework is used as the basis for the flight software for satellite data systems and instruments, but can also be used on other embedded systems. Modules of this package are used in NICER (Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer). The modules are available as separate downloads from SourceForge through the NASA cFS website.
CGS (Collisionless Galactic Simulator) uses Fourier techniques to solve the Possion equation ∇2Φ = 4πGρ, relating the mean potential Φ of a system to the mass density ρ. The angular dependence of the force is treated exactly in terms of the single-particle Legendre polynomials, which preserves accuracy and avoids systematic errors. The density is assigned to a radial grid by means of a cloud-in-cell scheme with a linear kernel, i.e., a particle contributes to the density of the two closest cells with a weight depending linearly on the distance from the center of the cell considered. The same kernel is then used to assign the force from the grid to the particle. The time step is chosen adaptively in such a way that particles are not allowed to cross more than one radial cell during one step. CGS is based on van Albada's code (1982) and is distributed in the NEMO (ascl:1010.051) Stellar Dynamics Toolbox.
CGS3DR is data reduction software for the UKIRT CGS3 mid-infrared grating spectrometer instrument. It includes a command-line interface and a GUI. The software, originally on VMS, was ported to Unix. It uses Starlink (ascl:1110.012) infrastructure libraries.
CGS4DR is data reduction software for the CGS4 instrument at UKIRT. The software can be used offline to reprocess CGS4 data. CGS4DR allows a wide variety of data reduction configurations, and can interlace oversampled data frames; reduce known bias, dark, flat, arc, object and sky frames; remove the sky, residual sky OH-lines (λ < 2.3 μm) and thermal emission (λ ≥ 2.3 μm) from data; and add data into groups for improved signal-to-noise. It can also extract and de-ripple a spectrum and offers a variety of ways to plot data, in addition to other useful features. CGS4DR is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
ChainConsumer consumes the chains output from Monte Carlo processes such as MCMC to produce plots of the posterior surface inferred from the chain distributions, to plot the chains as walks to check for mixing and convergence, and to output parameter summaries in the form of LaTeX tables. It handles multiple models (chains), allowing for model comparison using AIC, BIC or DIC metrics.
ChaNGa (Charm N-body GrAvity solver) performs collisionless N-body simulations. It can perform cosmological simulations with periodic boundary conditions in comoving coordinates or simulations of isolated stellar systems. It also can include hydrodynamics using the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) technique. It uses a Barnes-Hut tree to calculate gravity, with hexadecapole expansion of nodes and Ewald summation for periodic forces. Timestepping is done with a leapfrog integrator with individual timesteps for each particle.
Charm (cosmic history agnostic reconstruction method) reconstructs the cosmic expansion history in the framework of Information Field Theory. The reconstruction is performed via the iterative Wiener filter from an agnostic or from an informative prior. The charm code allows one to test the compatibility of several different data sets with the LambdaCDM model in a non-parametric way.
Cheetah models starspots in photometric data (lightcurves) by calculating the modulation of a light curve due to starspots. The main parameters of the program are the linear and quadratic limb darkening coefficients, stellar inclination, spot locations and sizes, and the intensity ratio of the spots to the stellar photosphere. Cheetah uses uniform spot contrast and the minimum number of spots needed to produce a good fit and ignores bright regions for the sake of simplicity.
Chempy models Galactic chemical evolution (GCE); it is a parametrized open one-zone model within a Bayesian framework. A Chempy model is specified by a set of 5-10 parameters that describe the effective galaxy evolution along with the stellar and star-formation physics: e.g. the star-formation history (SFH), the feedback efficiency, the stellar initial mass function (IMF) and the incidence of supernova of type Ia (SN Ia). Chempy can sample the posterior probability distribution in the full model parameter space and test data-model matches for different nucleosynthetic yield sets, performing essentially as a chemical evolution fitting tool. Chempy can be used to confront predictions from stellar nucleosynthesis with complex abundance data sets and to refine the physical processes governing the chemical evolution of stellar systems.
ChempyMulti (ascl:1909.006) is available as an update to the ChempyScoring package.
ChempyMulti is an update to Chempy (ascl:1702.011) and provides yield table scoring and multi-star Bayesian inference. This replaces the ChempyScoring package in Chempy. Chempy is a flexible one-zone open-box chemical evolution model, incorporating abundance fitting and stellar feedback calculations. It includes routines for parameter optimization for simulations and observational data and yield table scoring.
CHIANTI consists of a critically evaluated set of atomic data necessary to calculate the emission line spectrum of astrophysical plasmas. The data consists of atomic energy levels, atomic radiative data such as wavelengths, weighted oscillator strengths and A values, and electron collisional excitation rates. A set of programs that use these data to calculate the spectrum in a desired wavelength range as a function of temperature and density are also provided. These programs have been written in Interactive Data Language (IDL) and descriptions of these various programs are provided on the website.
ChiantiPy is an object-orient Python package for calculating astrophysical spectra using the CHIANTI atomic database for astrophysical spectroscopy. It provides access to the database and the ability to calculate various physical quantities for the interpretation of astrophysical spectra.
Chimenea implements an heuristic algorithm for automated imaging of multi-epoch radio-synthesis data. It generates a deep image via an iterative Clean subroutine performed on the concatenated visibility set and locates steady sources in the field of view. The code then uses this information to apply constrained and then unconstrained (i.e., masked/open-box) Cleans to the single-epoch observations. This obtains better results than if the single-epoch data had been processed independently without prior knowledge of the sky-model. The chimenea pipeline is built upon CASA (ascl:1107.013) subroutines, interacting with the CASA environment via the drive-casa (ascl:1504.006) interface layer.
CHIMERA simulates core collapse supernovas; it is three-dimensional and accounts for the differing energies of neutrinos. This massively parallel multiphysics code conserves total energy (gravitational, internal, kinetic, and neutrino) to within 0.5 B, given a conservative gravitational potential. CHIMERA has three main components: a hydro component, a neutrino transport component, and a nuclear reaction network component. It also includes a Poisson solver for the gravitational potential and a sophisticated equation of state.
CHIP (Caltech High-res IRS Pipeline) reduces high signal-to-noise short-high and long-high Spitzer-IRS spectra, especially that taken with dedicated background exposures. Written in IDL, it is independent of other Spitzer reduction tools except IRSFRINGE (ascl:1602.016).
A self-contained Fortran-77 program for goodness of fit tests for histograms with weighted entries as well as with unweighted entries is presented. The code calculates test statistic for case of histogram with normalized weights of events and for case of unnormalized weights of events.
CHLOE is an image analysis unsupervised learning algorithm that detects peculiar galaxies in datasets of galaxy images. The algorithm first computes a large set of numerical descriptors reflecting different aspects of the visual content, and then weighs them based on the standard deviation of the values computed from the galaxy images. The weighted Euclidean distance of each galaxy image from the median is measured, and the peculiarity of each galaxy is determined based on that distance.
Cholla (Computational Hydrodynamics On ParaLLel Architectures) models the Euler equations on a static mesh and evolves the fluid properties of thousands of cells simultaneously using GPUs. It can update over ten million cells per GPU-second while using an exact Riemann solver and PPM reconstruction, allowing computation of astrophysical simulations with physically interesting grid resolutions (>256^3) on a single device; calculations can be extended onto multiple devices with nearly ideal scaling beyond 64 GPUs.
Chombo provides a set of tools for implementing finite difference methods for the solution of partial differential equations on block-structured adaptively refined rectangular grids. Both elliptic and time-dependent modules are included. Chombo supports calculations in complex geometries with both embedded boundaries and mapped grids, and also supports particle methods. Most parallel platforms are supported, and cross-platform self-describing file formats are included.
The Chombo package is a product of the community of Collaborators working with the Applied Numerical Algorithms Group (ANAG), part of the Computational Research Division at LBNL.
CHORIZOS is a multi-purpose Bayesian code developed in IDL to compare photometric data with model spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The user can select the SED family (e.g. Kurucz) and choose the behavior of each parameter (e.g. Teff) to be fixed, constrained to a given range, or unconstrained. The code calculates the likelihood for the full specified parameter ranges, thus allowing for the identification of multiple solutions and the evaluation of the full correlation matrix for the derived parameters of a single solution.
Chroma investigates biases originating from two chromatic effects in the atmosphere: differential chromatic refraction (DCR), and wavelength dependence of seeing. These biases arise when using the point spread function (PSF) measured with stars to estimate the shapes of galaxies with different spectral energy distributions (SEDs) than the stars.
Chrono is a physics-based modelling and simulation infrastructure implemented in C++. It can handle multibody dynamics, collision detection, and granular flows, among many other physical processes. Though the applications for which Chrono has been used most often are vehicle dynamics, robotics, and machine design, it has been used to simulate asteroid aggregation and granular systems for astrophysics research. Chrono is written in C++; a Python version, PyChrono, is also available.
CIAO is a data analysis system written for the needs of users of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Because Chandra data is 4-dimensional (2 spatial, time, energy) and each dimension has many independent elements, CIAO was built to handle N-dimensional data without concern about which particular axes were being analyzed. Apart from a few Chandra instrument tools, CIAO is mission independent. CIAO tools read and write several formats, including FITS images and tables (which includes event files) and IRAF imh files. CIAO is a powerful system for the analysis of many types of data.
CIFOG is a versatile MPI-parallelised semi-numerical tool to perform simulations of the Epoch of Reionization. From a set of evolving cosmological gas density and ionizing emissivity fields, it computes the time and spatially dependent ionization of neutral hydrogen (HI), neutral (HeI) and singly ionized helium (HeII) in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The code accounts for HII, HeII, HeIII recombinations, and provides different descriptions for the photoionization rate that are used to calculate the residual HI fraction in ionized regions. This tool has been designed to be coupled to semi-analytic galaxy formation models or hydrodynamical simulations. The modular fashion of the code allows the user to easily introduce new descriptions for recombinations and the photoionization rate.
The CIGALE code has been developed to study the evolution of galaxies by comparing modelled galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to observed ones from the far ultraviolet to the far infrared. It extends the SED fitting algorithm written by Burgarella et al. (2005, MNRAS 360, 1411). While the previous code was designed to fit SEDs in the optical and near infrared, CIGALE is able to fit SEDs up to the far infrared using Dale & Helou (2002, ApJ 576, 159). CIGALE Bayesian and CIGALE Monte Carlo Markov Chain are available.
CINE calculates infrared pumping efficiencies that can be applied to the most common molecules found in cometary comae such as water, hydrogen cyanide or methanol. One of the main mechanisms for molecular excitation in comets is the fluorescence by the solar radiation followed by radiative decay to the ground vibrational state. This command-line tool calculates the effective pumping rates for rotational levels in the ground vibrational state scaled by the heliocentric distance of the comet. Fluorescence coefficients are useful for modeling rotational emission lines observed in cometary spectra at sub-millimeter wavelengths. Combined with computational methods to solve the radiative transfer equations based, e.g., on the Monte Carlo algorithm, this model can retrieve production rates and rotational temperatures from the observed emission spectrum.
CISM_DX is a community-developed suite of integrated data, models, and data and model explorers, for research and education. The data and model explorers are based on code written for OpenDX and Octave; OpenDX provides the visualization infrastructures as well as the process for creating user interfaces to the model and data, and Octave allows for extensive data manipulation and reduction operations. The CISM-DX package extends the capabilities of the core software programs to meet the needs of space physics researchers.
CJAM calculates first and second velocity moments using the Jeans Anisotropic MGE (JAM) models of Cappellari (2008) and Cappellari (2012). These models have been extended to calculate all three (x, y, z) first moments and all six (xx, yy, zz, xy, xz, yz) second moments. CJAM, written in C, is based on the IDL implementation of the line-of-sight calculations by Michele Cappellari.
Boltzmann codes are used extensively by several groups for constraining cosmological parameters with Cosmic Microwave Background and Large Scale Structure data. This activity is computationally expensive, since a typical project requires from 10'000 to 100'000 Boltzmann code executions. The code CLASS (Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System) incorporates improved approximation schemes leading to a simultaneous gain in speed and precision. We describe here the three approximations used by CLASS for basic LambdaCDM models, namely: a baryon-photon tight-coupling approximation which can be set to first order, second order or to a compromise between the two; an ultra-relativistic fluid approximation which had not been implemented in public distributions before; and finally a radiation streaming approximation taking reionisation into account.
CLASSgal computes large scale structure observables; it includes all relativistic corrections and computes both the power spectrum Cl(z1,z2) and the corresponding correlation function ξ(θ, z1, z2) of the matter density and the galaxy number fluctuations in linear perturbation theory. These quantities contain the full information encoded in the large scale matter distribution at the level of linear perturbation theory for Gaussian initial perturbations. CLASSgal is a modified version of CLASS (ascl:1106.020).
CLE, written in Fortran 77, synthesizes Stokes profiles of forbidden lines such as Fe XIII 1074.7nm, formed in magnetic dipole transitions under coronal conditions. The lines are assumed to be optically thin, excited by (anisotropic) photospheric radiation and thermal particle collisions.
The CLEAR pipeline and library performs various tasks for the CANDELS Ly-alpha Emission at Reionization (CLEAR) experiment of deep Hubble grism observations of high-z galaxies. It interlaces images, models contamination of overlapping grism spectra, extracts source spectra, stacks the extracted source spectra, and estimates fits for sources redshifts and emission lines.
CLOC computes cluster order statistics, i.e. the luminosity distribution of the Nth most luminous cluster in a population. It is flexible and requires few assumptions, allowing for parametrized variations in the initial cluster mass function and its upper and lower cutoffs, variations in the cluster age distribution, stellar evolution and dust extinction, as well as observational uncertainties in both the properties of star clusters and their underlying host galaxies. It uses Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to search parameter space to find best-fitting values for the parameters describing cluster formation and disruption, and to obtain rigorous confidence intervals on the inferred values.
We developed a new quick pseudo-3D photoionization code based on Cloudy (G. Ferland) and IDL (RSI) tools. The code is running the 1D photoionization code Cloudy various times, changing at each run the input parameters (e.g. inner radius, density law) according to an angular law describing the morphology of the object. Then a cube is generated by interpolating the outputs of Cloudy. In each cell of the cube, the physical conditions (electron temperature and density, ionic fractions) and the emissivities of lines are determined. Associated tools (VISNEB and VELNEB_3D) are used to rotate the nebula and to compute surface brightness maps and emission line profiles, given a velocity law and taking into account the effect of the thermal broadening and eventually the turbulence. Integrated emission line profiles are computed, given aperture shapes and positions (seeing and instrumental width effects are included). The main advantage of this tool is the short time needed to compute a model (a few tens minutes).
Cloudy is a large-scale spectral synthesis code designed to simulate fully physical conditions within an astronomical plasma and then predict the emitted spectrum. The code is freely available and is widely used in the analysis and interpretation of emission-line spectra.
CLOVER (Convnet Line-fitting Of Velocities in Emission-line Regions) is a convolutional neural network (ConvNet) trained to identify spectra with two velocity components along the line of sight and predict their kinematics. It works with Gaussian emission lines (e.g., CO) and lines with hyperfine structure (e.g., NH3). CLOVER has two prediction steps, classification and parameter prediction. For the first step, CLOVER segments the pixels in an input data cube into one of three classes: noise (i.e., no emission), one-component (emission line with single velocity component), and two-component (emission line with two velocity components). For the pixels identified as two-components in the first step, a second regression ConvNet is used to predict centroid velocity, velocity dispersion, and peak intensity for each velocity component.
We describe an automatic, objective routine for analyzing the clumpy structure in a spectral line position-position-velocity data cube. The algorithm works by first contouring the data at a multiple of the rms noise of the observations, then searches for peaks of emission which locate the clumps, and then follows them down to lower intensities. No a proiri clump profile is assumed. By creating simulated data, we test the performance of the algorithm and show that a contour map most accurately depicts internal structure at a contouring interval equal to twice the rms noise of the map. Blending of clump emission leads to small errors in mass and size determinations and in severe cases can result in a number of clumps being misidentified as a single unit, flattening the measured clump mass spectrum. The algorithm is applied to two real data sets as an example of its use. The Rosette molecular cloud is a 'typical' star-forming cloud, but in the Maddalena molecular cloud high-mass star formation is completely absent. Comparison of the two clump lists generated by the algorithm show that on a one-to-one basis the clumps in the star-forming cloud have higher peak temperatures, higher average densities, and are more gravitationally bound than in the non-star-forming cloud. Collective properties of the clumps, such as temperature-size-line-width-mass relations appear very similar, however. Contrary to the initial results reported in a previous paper (Williams & Blitz 1993), we find that the current, more thoroughly tested analysis finds no significant difference in the clump mass spectrum of the two clouds.
CLUMPY is a public code for semi-analytical calculation of the gamma-ray flux astrophysical J-factor from dark matter annihilation/decay in the Galaxy, including dark matter substructures. The core of the code is the calculation of the line of sight integral of the dark matter density squared (for annihilations) or density (for decaying dark matter). The code can be used in three modes: i) to draw skymaps from the Galactic smooth component and/or the substructure contributions, ii) to calculate the flux from a specific halo (that is not the Galactic halo, e.g. dwarf spheroidal galaxies) or iii) to perform simple statistical operations from a list of allowed DM profiles for a given object. Extragalactic contributions and other tracers of DM annihilation (e.g. positrons, antiprotons) will be included in a second release.
clustep generates a snapshot in GADGET-2 (ascl:0003.001) format containing a galaxy cluster halo in equilibrium; this snapshot can also be read in RAMSES (ascl:1011.007) using the DICE patch. The halo is made of a dark matter component and a gas component, with the latter representing the ICM. Each of these components follows a Dehnen density profile, with gamma=0 or gamma=1. If gamma=1, then the profile corresponds to a Hernquist profile.
Cluster-in-a-box provides a statistical model of sub-millimeter emission from embedded protostellar clusters and consists of three modules grouped in two scripts. The first (cluster_distribution) generates the cluster based on the number of stars, input initial mass function, spatial distribution and age distribution. The second (cluster_emission) takes an input file of observations, determines the mass-intensity correlation and generates outflow emission for all low-mass Class 0 and I sources. The output is stored as a FITS image where the flux density is determined by the desired resolution, pixel scale and cluster distance.
The cluster-lensing package calculates properties and weak lensing profiles of galaxy clusters. Implemented in Python, it includes cluster mass-richness and mass-concentration scaling relations, and NFW halo profiles for weak lensing shear, the differential surface mass density ΔΣ(r), and for magnification, Σ(r). Optionally the calculation will include the effects of cluster miscentering offsets.
CLUSTEREASY is a parallel programming extension of the simulation program LATTICEEASY (ascl:1911.015); running the program in parallel greatly extends the range of scales and times that can be simulated. The program is particularly useful for the study of reheating and thermalization after inflation.
Clustering is a modified version of the single-pulse sifting algorithm RRATrap (ascl:2011.017) combined with DBSCAN codes to cluster single pulse events.
ClusterPyXT (Cluster Pypeline for X-ray Temperature maps) creates X-ray temperature maps, pressure maps, surface brightness maps, and density maps from X-ray observations of galaxy clusters to show turbulence, shock fronts, nonthermal phenomena, and the overall dynamics of cluster mergers. It requires CIAO (ascl:1311.006) and CALDB. The code analyzes archival data and provides capability for integrating additional observations into the analysis. The ClusterPyXT code is general enough to analyze data from other sources, such as galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and supernovae, though minor modifications may be necessary.
CMacIonize simulates the self-consistent evolution of HII regions surrounding young O and B stars, or other sources of ionizing radiation. The code combines a Monte Carlo photoionization algorithm that uses a complex mix of hydrogen, helium and several coolants in order to self-consistently solve for the ionization and temperature balance at any given time, with a standard first order hydrodynamics scheme. The code can be run as a post-processing tool to get the line emission from an existing simulation snapshot, but can also be used to run full radiation hydrodynamical simulations. Both the radiation transfer and the hydrodynamics are implemented in a general way that is independent of the grid structure that is used to discretize the system, allowing it to be run both as a standard fixed grid code and also as a moving-mesh code.
CMasher provides a curated collection of scientific colormaps that are perceptually uniform sequential using the viscm package (ascl:2102.007). Most of them are color-vision deficiency friendly; they cover a wide range of different color combinations to accommodate for most applications. The package provides several alternatives to commonly used colormaps, such as chroma and rainforest for jet, sunburst for hot, neutral for binary, and fusion and redshift for coolwarm.
This code is a quick and exact calculator of B-mode angular spectrum due to Faraday rotation by stochastic magnetic fields. Faraday rotation induced B-modes can provide a distinctive signature of primordial magnetic fields because of their characteristic frequency dependence and because they are only weakly damped on small scales, allowing them to dominate B-modes from other sources. By numerically solving the full CMB radiative transport equations, we study the B-mode power spectrum induced by stochastic magnetic fields that have significant power on scales smaller than the thickness of the last scattering surface. Constraints on the magnetic field energy density and inertial scale are derived from WMAP 7-year data, and are stronger than the big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) bound for a range of parameters. Observations of the CMB polarization at smaller angular scales are crucial to provide tighter constraints or a detection.
This code is based on the cosmic string model described in this paper by Pogosian and Vachaspati, as well as on the CMBFAST code created by Uros Seljak and Matias Zaldarriaga. It contains an integrator for the vector contribution to the CMB temperature and polarization. The code is reconfigured to make it easier to use with or without active sources. To produce inflationary CMB spectra one simply sets the string tension to zero (gmu=0.0d0). For a non-zero value of tension only the string contribution is calculated.
An option is added to randomize the directions of velocities of consolidated segments as they evolve in time. In the original segment model, which is still the default version (irandomv=0), each segment is given a random velocity initially, but then continues to move in a straight line for the rest of its life. The new option (irandomv=1) allows to additionally randomize velocities of each segment at roughly each Hubble time. However, the merits of this new option are still under investigation. The default version (irandomv=0) is strongly recommended, since it actually gives reasonable unequal time correlators. For each Fourier mode, k, the string stress-energy components are now evaluated on a time grid sufficiently fine for that k.
CMBEASY is a software package for calculating the evolution of density fluctuations in the universe. Most notably, the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature anisotropies. It features a Markov Chain Monte Carlo driver and many routines to compute likelihoods of any given model. It is based on the CMBFAST package by Uros Seljak and Matias Zaldarriaga.
CMBFAST is the most extensively used code for computing cosmic microwave background anisotropy, polarization and matter power spectra. This package contains cosmological linear perturbation theory code to compute the evolution of various cosmological matter and radiation components, both today and at high redshift. The code has been tested over a wide range of cosmological parameters.
This code is no longer supported; please investigate using CAMB (ascl:1102.026) instead.
CMBquick is a package for Mathematica in which tools are provided to compute the spectrum and bispectrum of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It is unavoidably slow, but the main goal is not to design a tool which can be used for systematic exploration of parameters in cosmology, but rather a toy CMB code which is transparent and easily modified. Considering this, the name chosen is nothing but a joke which refers to the widely spread and used softwares CMBFAST, CAMB or CMBeasy (ascl:1007.004), which should be used for serious and heavy first order CMB computations, and which are indeed very fast.
The package CMBquick is unavoidably slow when it comes to compute the multipoles Cls, and most of it is due to the access time for variables which in Mathematica is approximately ten times slower than in C or Fortran. CMBquick is thus approximately 10 times slower than CAMB and cannot be used for the same reasons. It uses the same method as CAMB for computing the CMB spectrum, which is based on the line of sight approach. However the integration is performed in a different gauge with different time steps and k-spacing. It benefits from the power of Mathematica on numerical resolution of stiff differential systems, and the transfer functions can be obtained with exquisite accuracy.
The purpose of CMBquick is thus twofold. First, CMBquick is a slow but precise and pedagogical, tool which can be used to explore and modify the physical content of the linear and non-linear dynamics. Second, it is a tool which can help developing templates for nonlinear computations, which could then be hard coded once their correctness is checked. The number of equations for non-linear dynamics is quite sizable and CMBquick makes it easy (but slow) to manipulate the non-linear equations, to solve them precisely, and to plot them.
CMBview is a viewer for FITS files containing HEALPix sky maps. Sky maps are projected onto a 3d sphere which can be rotated and zoomed interactively with the mouse. Features include:
The Caitlin M. Casey Infra Red Spectral Energy Distribution model (CMCIRSED) provides a simple SED fitting technique suitable for a wide range of IR data, from sources which have only three IR photometric points to sources with >10 photometric points. These SED fits produce accurate estimates to a source's integrated IR luminosity, dust temperature and dust mass. CMCIRSED is based on a single dust temperature greybody fit linked to a MIR power law, fitted simultaneously to data across ∼5–2000 μm.
CMD Plot Tool calculates and plots Color Magnitude Diagrams (CMDs) from astronomical photometric data, e.g. of a star cluster observed in two filter bandpasses. It handles multiple file formats (plain text, DAOPHOT .mag files, ACS Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters .zpt files) to generate professional and customized plots without a steep learning curve. It works “out of the box” and does not require any installation of development environments, additional libraries, or resetting of system paths. The tool is available as a single application/executable file with the source code. Sample data is also bundled for demonstration. CMD Plot Tool can also convert DAOPHOT magnitude files to CSV format.
CMEchaser looks for the occultation of background astronomical sources by CMEs to enable measurement of effects such as variations in the ionized content and the associated Faraday rotation of polarized signals along the line of sight to the background source. The code transforms a given Galactic coordinate to its concordant point in the Helioprojective, Sun-centered plane and estimates the point at which the line of sight from the source to the Earth passes through it. It then searches a user selected database to detect if any CMEs which launched before the observation date would have crossed the line of sight at the epoch of observation, and produces a number of useful plots. CMEchaser can run as a flat script orcan be installed as a package.
A radiative transfer code designed to solve the radiative transfer and statistical equilibrium equations in spherical geometry. It has been designed for application to W-R stars, O stars, and Luminous Blue-Variables. CMFGEN allows fundamental parameters such as effective temperatures, stellar radii and stellar luminosities to be determined. It can provide constraints on mass-loss rates, and allow abundance determinations for a wide range of atomic species. Further it can provide accurate energy distributions, and hence ionizing fluxes, which can be used as input for codes which model the spectra of HII regions and ring nebular.
CMHOG (Connection Machine Higher Order Godunov) is a code for ideal compressible hydrodynamics based on the Lagrange-plus-remap version of the piecewise parabolic method (PPM) of Colella & Woodward (1984, J. Comp. Phys., 74, 1). It works in one-, two- or three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates with either an adiabatic or isothermal equation of state. A limited amount of extra physics has been added using operator splitting, including optically-thin radiative cooling, and chemistry for combustion simulations.
CO5BOLD - nickname COBOLD - is the short form of "COnservative COde for the COmputation of COmpressible COnvection in a BOx of L Dimensions with l=2,3''.
It is used to model solar and stellar surface convection. For solar-type stars only a small fraction of the stellar surface layers are included in the computational domain. In the case of red supergiants the computational box contains the entire star. Recently, the model range has been extended to sub-stellar objects (brown dwarfs).
CO5BOLD solves the coupled non-linear equations of compressible hydrodynamics in an external gravity field together with non-local frequency-dependent radiation transport. Operator splitting is applied to solve the equations of hydrodynamics (including gravity), the radiative energy transfer (with a long-characteristics or a short-characteristics ray scheme), and possibly additional 3D (turbulent) diffusion in individual sub steps. The 3D hydrodynamics step is further simplified with directional splitting (usually). The 1D sub steps are performed with a Roe solver, accounting for an external gravity field and an arbitrary equation of state from a table.
The radiation transport is computed with either one of three modules:
CO5BOLD is written in Fortran90. The parallelization is done with OpenMP directives.
CoastGuard reduces Effelsberg data; it is written in python and based on PSRCHIVE (ascl:1105.014). Though primarily designed for Effelsberg PSRIX data, it contains components sufficiently general for use with psrchive-compatible data files from other observing systems. In particular, the radio frequency interference (RFI) removal algorithm has been applied to data from the Parkes Telescope and has also been adopted by the LOFAR pulsar timing data reduction pipeline.
Cobaya (Code for BAYesian Analysis) provides a framework for sampling and statistical modeling and enables exploration of an arbitrary prior or posterior using a range of Monte Carlo samplers, including the advanced MCMC sampler from CosmoMC (ascl:1106.025) and the advanced nested sampler PolyChord (ascl:1502.011). The results of the sampling can be analyzed with GetDist (ascl:1910.018). It supports MPI parallelization and is highly extensible, allowing the user to define priors and likelihoods and create new parameters as functions of other parameters.
It includes interfaces to the cosmological theory codes CAMB (ascl:1102.026) and CLASS (ascl:1106.020) and likelihoods of cosmological experiments, such as Planck, Bicep-Keck, and SDSS. Automatic installers are included for those external modules; Cobaya can also be used as a wrapper for cosmological models and likelihoods, and integrated it in other samplers and pipelines. The interfaces to most cosmological likelihoods are agnostic as to which theory code is used to compute the observables, which facilitates comparison between those codes. Those interfaces are also parameter-agnostic, allowing use of modified versions of theory codes and likelihoods without additional editing of Cobaya’s source.
Cobra uses single pulse time series data to search for and time pulsars, performing a fully phase coherent timing analysis. The GPU-accelerated Bayesian analysis package, written in Python, incorporates models for both isolated and accelerated systems, as well as both Keplerian and relativistic binaries. Cobra builds a model pulse train that incorporates effects such as aliasing, scattering and binary motion and a simple Gaussian profile and compares this directly to the data; the software can thus combine data over multiple frequencies, epochs, or even across telescopes.
COBS (COnstrained B-Splines), written in R, creates constrained regression smoothing splines via linear programming and sparse matrices. The method has two important features: the number and location of knots for the spline fit are established using the likelihood-based Akaike Information Criterion (rather than a heuristic procedure); and fits can be made for quantiles (e.g. 25% and 75% as well as the usual 50%) in the response variable, which is valuable when the scatter is asymmetrical or non-Gaussian. This code is useful for, for example, estimating cluster ages when there is a wide spread in stellar ages at a chosen absorption, as a standard regression line does not give an effective measure of this relationship.
The COCO program converts star coordinates from one system to another. Both the improved IAU system, post-1976, and the old pre-1976 system are supported. COCO can perform accurate transformations between multiple coordinate systems. COCO’s user-interface is spartan but efficient and the program offers control over report resolution. All input is free-format, and defaults are provided where this is meaningful. COCO uses SLALIB (ascl:1403.025) and is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
COCOA (Cluster simulatiOn Comparison with ObservAtions) creates idealized mock photometric observations using results from numerical simulations of star cluster evolution. COCOA is able to present the output of realistic numerical simulations of star clusters carried out using Monte Carlo or N-body codes in a way that is useful for direct comparison with photometric observations. The code can simulate optical observations from simulation snapshots in which positions and magnitudes of objects are known. The parameters for simulating the observations can be adjusted to mimic telescopes of various sizes. COCOA also has a photometry pipeline that can use standalone versions of DAOPHOT (ascl:1104.011) and ALLSTAR to produce photometric catalogs for all observed stars.
CoCoNuT is a general relativistic hydrodynamics code with dynamical space-time evolution. The main aim of this numerical code is the study of several astrophysical scenarios in which general relativity can play an important role, namely the collapse of rapidly rotating stellar cores and the evolution of isolated neutron stars. The code has two flavors: CoCoA, the axisymmetric (2D) magnetized version, and CoCoNuT, the 3D non-magnetized version.
COLAcode is a serial particle mesh-based N-body code illustrating the COLA (COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration) method; it solves for Large Scale Structure (LSS) in a frame that is comoving with observers following trajectories calculated in Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT). It differs from standard N-body code by trading accuracy at small-scales to gain computational speed without sacrificing accuracy at large scales. This is useful for generating large ensembles of accurate mock halo catalogs required to study galaxy clustering and weak lensing; such catalogs are needed to perform detailed error analysis for ongoing and future surveys of LSS.
collapse calculates the spherical−collapse for standard cosmological models as well as for dark energy models when the dark energy can be taken to be spatially homogeneous. The calculation is valid on sub−horizon scales and takes a top−hat perturbation to exist in an otherwise featureless cosmos and follows its evolution into the non−linear regime where it reaches a maximum size and then recollapses. collapse provides the user with the linear−collapse threshold (delta_c) and the virial overdensity (Delta_v) for the collapsed halo over a range of cosmic scale factors.
ColorPro automatically obtains robust colors across images of varied PSF. To correct for the flux lost in images with poorer PSF, the "detection image" is blurred to match the PSF of these other images, allowing observation of how much flux is lost. All photometry is performed in the highest resolution frame (images being aligned given WCS information in the FITS headers), and identical apertures are used in every image. Usually isophotal apertures are used, as determined by SExtractor (ascl:1010.064). Using SExSeg (ascl:1508.006), object aperture definitions can be pre-defined and object detections from different image filters can be combined automatically into a single comprehensive "segmentation map." After producing the final photometric catalog, ColorPro can automatically run BPZ (ascl:1108.011) to obtain Bayesian Photometric Redshifts.
Colossus is a collection of Python modules for cosmology and dark matter halos calculations. It performs cosmological calculations with an emphasis on structure formation applications, implements general and specific density profiles, and provides a large range of models for the concentration-mass relation, including a conversion to arbitrary mass definitions.
COMB supports the simulation on the sphere of compact objects embedded in a stochastic background process of specified power spectrum. Support is provided to add additional white noise and convolve with beam functions. Functionality to support functions defined on the sphere is provided by the S2 code (ascl:1606.008); HEALPix (ascl:1107.018) and CFITSIO (ascl:1010.001) are also required.
comb is a single-dish radio astronomy spectral line data reduction and analysis package developed at AT&T Bell labs and was used for data reduction for many single-dish telescopes, including Bell Labs 7-m, NRAO 12-m, DSN network, FCRAO 14-m, Arecibo, AST/RO, SEST, BIMA, and in 2011-2012, the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory. A cookbook for the code is available.
ComEst calculates the completeness of CCD images conducted in astronomical observations saved in the FITS format. It estimates the completeness of the source finder SExtractor (ascl:1010.064) on the optical and near-infrared (NIR) imaging of point sources or galaxies as a function of flux (or magnitude) directly from the image itself. It uses PyFITS (ascl:1207.009) and GalSim (ascl:1402.009) to perform the end-to-end estimation of the completeness and can also estimate the purity of the source detection.
Comet is a Python implementation of the VOEvent Transport Protocol (VTP). VOEvent is the IVOA system for describing transient celestial events. Details of transients detected by many projects, including Fermi, Swift, and the Catalina Sky Survey, are currently made available as VOEvents, which is also the standard alert format by future facilities such as LSST and SKA. The core of Comet is a multifunction VOEvent broker, capable of receiving events either by subscribing to one or more remote brokers or by direct connection from authors; it can then both process those events locally and forward them to its own subscribers. In addition, Comet provides a tool for publishing VOEvents to the global VOEvent backbone.
Commander 2 is a Gibbs sampling code for joint CMB estimation and component separation. The Commander framework uses a parametrized physical model of the sky to perform statistically-rigorous analyses of multi-frequency, multi-resolution CMB data on the full and partial (flat) sky, as well as cross-correlation analyses with large-scale structure datasets.
Companion-Finder looks for planets and binary companions in time series spectra by searching for the spectral lines of stellar companions to other stars observed with high-precision radial-velocity surveys.
ComputePk computes the power spectrum in cosmological simulations. It is MPI parallel and has been tested up to a 4096^3 mesh. It uses the FFTW library. It can read Gadget-3 and GOTPM outputs, and computes the dark matter component. The user may choose between NGP, CIC, and TSC for the mass assignment scheme.
Consistent Trees generates merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensure consistency of halo properties (mass, position, velocity, radius) across timesteps. It has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. Consistent Trees is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders and to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations.
This program addresses the question of what resources are needed to produce a continuous data record of the entire sky down to a given limiting visual magnitude. Toward this end, the program simulates a small camera/telescope or group of small camera/telescopes collecting light from a large portion of the sky. From a given stellar density derived from a Bahcall - Soneira Galaxy model, the program first converts star densities at visual magnitudes between 5 and 20 to number of sky pixels needed to monitor each star simultaneously. From pixels, the program converts input CCD parameters to needed telescope attributes, needed data storage space, and the length of time needed to accumulate data of photometric quality for stars of each limiting visual magnitude over the whole sky. The program steps though photometric integrations one second at a time and includes the contribution from a bright background, read noise, dark current, and atmospheric absorption.
Contbin bins X-ray data using contours on an adaptively smoothed map. The generated bins closely follow the surface brightness, and are ideal where the surface brightness distribution is not smooth, or the spectral properties are expected to follow surface brightness. Color maps can be used instead of surface brightness maps.
The IDL package convolve_image.pro transforms images between different instrumental point spread functions (PSFs). It can load an image file and corresponding kernel and return the convolved image, thus preserving the colors of the astronomical sources. Convolution kernels are available for images from Spitzer (IRAC MIPS), Herschel (PACS SPIRE), GALEX (FUV NUV), WISE (W1 - W4), Optical PSFs (multi- Gaussian and Moffat functions), and Gaussian PSFs; they allow the study of the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of extended objects and preserve the characteristic SED in each pixel.
ConvPhot measures colors between two images having different resolutions. ConvPhot is designed to work especially for faint galaxies, accurately measuring colors in relatively crowded fields. It makes full use of the spatial and morphological information contained in the highest quality images to analyze multiwavelength data with inhomogeneous image quality.
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