RMextract calculates Ionospheric Faraday Rotation for a given epoch, location and line of sight. This Python code extracts TEC, vTEC, Earthmagnetic field and Rotation Measures from GPS and WMM data for radio interferometry observations.
Rmfit uses a forward-folding technique to obtain the best-fit parameters for a chosen model given user-selected source and background time intervals from data files containing observed count rates and a corresponding detector response matrix. rmfit displays lightcurves and spectra using a graphical interface that enables user-defined integrated or time-resolved spectral fits and binning in either time or energy. Originally developed for the analysis of BATSE Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) spectroscopy, rmfit is a tool for the spectroscopy of transient sources; it accommodates the Fermi GBM and LAT data and Swift BAT.
RMHB is a hierarchical Bayesian code for reverberation mapping (RM) that combines results of a sparsely sampled broad line region (BLR) light curve and a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) to infer properties of the sample of the AGN. The key idea of RM is to measure the time lag τ between variations in the continuum emission from the accretion disc and subsequent response of the broad line region (BLR). The measurement of τ is typically used to estimate the physical size of the BLR and is combined with other measurements to estimate the black hole mass MBH. A major difficulty with RM campaigns is the large amount of data needed to measure τ. RMHB allows a clear interpretation of a posterior distribution for hyperparameters describing the sample of AGN.
This program determines stellar population parameters (e.g. age, metallicity, IMF slope,...), using as input a pair of line-strength indices, through the interpolation in SSP model predictions. Both linear and bivariate fits are computed to perform the interpolation.
ROBAST (ROOT-based simulator for ray tracing) is a non-sequential ray-tracing simulation library developed for wide use in optical simulations of gamma-ray and cosmic-ray telescopes. The library is written in C++ and fully utilizes the geometry library of the ROOT analysis framework, and can build the complex optics geometries typically used in cosmic ray experiments and ground-based gamma-ray telescopes.
Robbie automates cataloging sources, finding variables, and identifying transients in the image domain. It works in a batch processing paradigm with a modular design so components can be swapped out or upgraded to adapt to different input data while retaining a consistent and coherent methodological approach. Robbie is based on commonly used and open software, including AegeanTools (ascl:1212.009) and STILS/TOPCAT (ascl:1101.010).
ROBOSPECT, written in C, automatically measures and deblends line equivalent widths for absorption and emission spectra. ROBOSPECT should not be used for stars with spectra in which there is no discernible continuum over large wavelength regions, nor for the most carbon-enhanced stars for which spectral synthesis would be favored. Although ROBOSPECT was designed for metal-poor stars, it is capable of fitting absorption and emission features in a variety of astronomical sources.
Roche is a visualization and analysis tool for drawing the Roche-lobe geometry of evolving binaries. Roche can be used as a standalone program reading data from the command line or from a file generated by SeBa (ascl:1201.003). Eventually Roche will be able to read data from any other binary evolution program. Roche requires Starlab (ascl:1010.076) version 4.1.1 or later and the pgplot (ascl:1103.002) libraries. Roche creates a series of images, based on the SeBa output file SeBa.data, displaying the evolutionary state of a binary.
Rockstar (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement) identifies dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure. Our method is massively parallel (up to 10^5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10^10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). Rockstar offers significant improvement in substructure recovery as compared to several other halo finders.
RODRIGUES (RATT Online Deconvolved Radio Image Generation Using Esoteric Software) is a web-based radio telescope simulation and reduction tool. From a technical perspective it is a web based parameterized docker container scheduler with a result set viewer.
The RPFITS data file format records synthesis visibility data obtained from the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at Narrabri, NSW. It is also used for single-dish spectral line data obtained from Parkes and Mopra, including Parkes multibeam data. RPFITS superficially resembles random group FITS, but differs in important respects, making it incompatible with standard FITS software such as FITSIO (ascl:1010.001) and FTOOLS (ascl:9912.002) and, in particular, it precludes the use of fv (ascl:1205.005). The RPFITS Fortran library contains routines for reading and writing RPFITS files. A header file, RPFITS.h, is provided to facilitate usage by C and C++ applications. Also included is rpfhdr, a utility for viewing RPFITS headers (it also works for standard FITS), and rpfex for extracting selected scans from an RPFITS file.
rPICARD (Radboud PIpeline for the Calibration of high Angular Resolution Data) reduces data from different VLBI arrays, including high-frequency and low-sensitivity arrays, and supports continuum, polarization, and phase-referencing observations. Built on the CASA (ascl:1107.013) framework, it uses CASA for CLEAN imaging and self-calibration, and can be run non-interactively after only a few non-default input parameters are set. rPICARD delivers high-quality calibrated data and large bandwidth data can be processed within reasonable computing times.
rsigma calculates the resonant disturbing function, R(sigma), for a massless particle in an arbitrary orbit perturbed by a planet in circular orbit. This function defines the strength of the resonance (its semi-amplitude) and the location of the stable equilibrium points (the minima). It depends on the variable sigma called critical angle and on the particle's orbital elements a, e, i and the argument of the perihelion. R(sigma) is numerically calculated and the code is valid for arbitrary eccentricities and inclinations, including retrograde orbits.
The parallel one-dimensional moving-mesh hydrodynamics code RT1D reproduces the multidimensional dynamics from Rayleigh-Taylor instability in supernova remnants.
rtpipe (real-time pipeline) analyzes radio interferometric data with an emphasis on searching for transient or variable astrophysical sources. The package combines single-dish concepts such as dedispersion and filters with interferometric concepts, including images and the uv-plane. In contrast to time-domain data recorded with large single-dish telescopes, visibilities from interferometers can precisely localize sources anywhere in the entire field of view. rtpipe opens interferometers to the study of fast transient sky, including sources like pulsars, stellar flares, rotating radio transients, and fast radio bursts. Key portions of the search pipeline, such as image generation and dedispersion, have been accelerated. That, in combination with its multi-threaded, multi-node design, makes rtpipe capable of searching millisecond timescale data in real time on small compute clusters.
runDM calculates the running of the couplings of Dark Matter (DM) to the Standard Model (SM) in simplified models with vector mediators. By specifying the mass of the mediator and the couplings of the mediator to SM fields at high energy, the code can calculate the couplings at low energy, taking into account the mixing of all dimension-6 operators. runDM can also extract the operator coefficients relevant for direct detection, namely low energy couplings to up, down and strange quarks and to protons and neutrons.
The RV program produces a report listing the components, in a given direction, of the observer's velocity on a given date. This allows an observed radial velocity to be referred to an appropriate standard of rest -- typically either the Sun or an LSR.
As a secondary function, RV computes light time components to the Sun, thus allowing the times of phenomena observed from a terrestrial observatory to be referred to a heliocentric frame of reference. n.b. It will of course, in addition, be necessary to express the observations in the appropriate timescale as well as applying light time corrections. In particular, it is likely that an observed UTC will need to be converted to TDB as well as being corrected to the Sun.)
rvfit, developed in IDL 7.0, fits non-precessing keplerian radial velocity (RV) curves for double-line and single-line binary stars or exoplanets. It fits a simple keplerian model to the observed RV and computes the seven parameters (six for a single-line system) from the model. Some parameters can be fixed beforehand if they are known, for instance, if photometric observations are available. The fit is done using an Adaptive Simulated Annealing algorithm optimized for this specific task. Simulated Annealing methods are powerful heuristic algorithms to minimize functions in multiparametric spaces.
The RVLIN package for IDL is a set of routines that quickly fits an arbitrary number of Keplerian curves to radial velocity data. It can handle data from multiple telescopes (i.e. it solves for the offset), constraints on P, e, and time of peri passage, and can incorporate transit timing data. The code handles fixed periods and circular orbits in combination and transit time constraints, including for multiple transiting planets.
RVSAO is a set of programs to obtain redshifts and radial velocities from digital spectra. RVSAO operates in the IRAF (Tody 1986, 1993) environment. The heart of the system is xcsao, which implements the cross-correlation method, and is a direct descendant of the system built by Tonry and Davis (1979). emsao uses intelligent heuristics to search for emission lines in spectra, then fits them to obtain a redshift. sumspec shifts and sums spectra to build templates for cross-correlation. linespec builds synthetic spectra given a list of spectral lines. bcvcorr corrects velocities for the motion of the earth. We discuss in detail the parameters necessary to run xcsao and emsao properly. We discuss the reliability and error associated with xcsao derived redshifts. We develop an internal error estimator, and we show how large, stable surveys can be used to develop more accurate error estimators. We develop a new methodology for building spectral templates for galaxy redshifts. We show how to obtain correlation velocities using emission line templates. Emission line correlations are substantially more efficient than the previous standard technique, automated emission line fitting. We compare the use of RVSAO with new methods, which use Singular Value Decomposition and $chi^2$ fitting techniques.
The s2 package can represent any arbitrary function defined on the sphere. Both real space map and harmonic space spherical harmonic representations are supported. Basic sky representations have been extended to simulate full sky noise distributions and Gaussian cosmic microwave background realisations. Support for the representation and convolution of beams is also provided. The code requires HEALPix (ascl:1107.018) and CFITSIO (ascl:1010.001).
Many problems in astronomy and astrophysics require a computation of the spherical harmonic transforms. This is in particular the case whenever data to be analyzed are distributed over the sphere or a set of corresponding mock data sets has to be generated. In many of those contexts, rapidly improving resolutions of both the data and simulations puts increasingly bigger emphasis on our ability to calculate the transforms quickly and reliably.
The scalable spherical harmonic transform library S2HAT consists of a set of flexible, massively parallel, and scalable routines for calculating diverse (scalar, spin-weighted, etc) spherical harmonic transforms for a class of isolatitude sky grids or pixelizations. The library routines implement the standard algorithm with the complexity of O(n^3/2), where n is a number of pixels/grid points on the sphere, however, owing to their efficient parallelization and advanced numerical implementation, they achieve very competitive performance and near perfect scalability. S2HAT is written in Fortran 90 with a C interface. This software is a derivative of the spherical harmonic transforms included in the HEALPix package and is based on both serial and MPI routines of its version 2.01, however, since version 2.5 this software is fully autonomous of HEALPix and can be compiled and run without the HEALPix library.
S2LET provides high performance routines for fast wavelet analysis of signals on the sphere. It uses the SSHT code built on the MW sampling theorem to perform exact spherical harmonic transforms on the sphere. The resulting wavelet transform implemented in S2LET is theoretically exact, i.e. a band-limited signal can be recovered from its wavelet coefficients exactly and the wavelet coefficients capture all the information. S2LET also supports the HEALPix sampling scheme, in which case the transforms are not theoretically exact but achieve good numerical accuracy. The core routines of S2LET are written in C and have interfaces in Matlab, IDL and Java. Real signals can be written to and read from FITS files and plotted as Mollweide projections.
We present a new, three-dimensional (3D) plotting library with advanced features, and support for standard and enhanced display devices. The library - S2PLOT - is written in C and can be used by C, C++ and FORTRAN programs on GNU/Linux and Apple/OSX systems. S2PLOT draws objects in a 3D (x,y,z) Cartesian space and the user interactively controls how this space is rendered at run time. With a PGPLOT inspired interface, S2PLOT provides astronomers with elegant techniques for displaying and exploring 3D data sets directly from their program code, and the potential to use stereoscopic and dome display devices. The S2PLOT architecture supports dynamic geometry and can be used to plot time-evolving data sets, such as might be produced by simulation codes. In this paper, we introduce S2PLOT to the astronomical community, describe its potential applications, and present some example uses of the library.
Saada transforms a set of heterogeneous FITS files or VOtables of various categories (images, tables, spectra, etc.) in a powerful database deployed on the Web. Databases are located on your host and stay independent of any external server. This job doesn’t require writing code. Saada can mix data of various categories in multiple collections. Data collections can be linked each to others making relevant browsing paths and allowing data-mining oriented queries. Saada supports 4 VO services (Spectra, images, sources and TAP) . Data collections can be published immediately after the deployment of the Web interface.
The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.
SAGE (Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution) models galaxy formation in a cosmological context. SAGE has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model runs on any dark matter cosmological N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties.
SALT (Spectral Adaptive Lightcurve Template) is a package for Type Ia Supernovae light curve fitting. Its main purpose is to provide a distance estimator but it can also be used for photometric redshifts, and spectroscopic + photometric identification. This code is also known by the name snfit.
The SAMI (Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph) pipeline reduces data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) for the SAMI Galaxy Survey. The python code organizes SAMI data and, along with the AAO 2dfdr package, carries out all steps in the data reduction, from raw data to fully calibrated datacubes. The principal steps are: data management, use of 2dfdr to produce row-stacked spectra, flux calibration, correction for telluric absorption, removal of atmospheric dispersion, alignment of dithered exposures, and drizzling onto a regular output grid. Variance and covariance information is tracked throughout the pipeline. Some quality control routines are also included.
samiDB is an archive, database, and query engine to serve the spectra, spectral hypercubes, and high-level science products that make up the SAMI Galaxy Survey. Based on the versatile Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5), samiDB does not depend on relational database structures and hence lightens the setup and maintenance load imposed on science teams by metadata tables. The code, written in Python, covers the ingestion, querying, and exporting of data as well as the automatic setup of an HTML schema browser. samiDB serves as a maintenance-light data archive for Big Science and can be adopted and adapted by science teams that lack the means to hire professional archivists to set up the data back end for their projects.
The Search And Non-Destroy (SAND) is a VLBI data reduction pipeline composed of a set of Python programs based on the AIPS interface provided by ObitTalk. It is designed for the massive data reduction of multi-epoch VLBI monitoring research. It can automatically investigate calibrated visibility data, search all the radio emissions above a given noise floor and do the model fitting either on the CLEANed image or directly on the uv data. It then digests the model-fitting results, intelligently identifies the multi-epoch jet component correspondence, and recognizes the linear or non-linear proper motion patterns. The outputs including CLEANed image catalogue with polarization maps, animation cube, proper motion fitting and core light curves. For uncalibrated data, a user can easily add inline modules to do the calibration and self-calibration in a batch for a specific array.
SAOImage DS9 is an astronomical imaging and data visualization application. DS9 supports FITS images and binary tables, multiple frame buffers, region manipulation, and many scale algorithms and colormaps. It provides for easy communication with external analysis tasks and is highly configurable and extensible via XPA and SAMP. DS9 is a stand-alone application. It requires no installation or support files. Versions of DS9 currently exist for Solaris, Linux, MacOSX, and Windows. All versions and platforms support a consistent set of GUI and functional capabilities. DS9 supports advanced features such as multiple frame buffers, mosaic images, tiling, blinking, geometric markers, colormap manipulation, scaling, arbitrary zoom, rotation, pan, and a variety of coordinate systems. DS9 also supports FTP and HTTP access. The GUI for DS9 is user configurable. GUI elements such as the coordinate display, panner, magnifier, horizontal and vertical graphs, button bar, and colorbar can be configured via menus or the command line. DS9 is a Tk/Tcl application which utilizes the SAOTk widget set. It also incorporates the X Public Access (XPA) mechanism to allow external processes to access and control its data, GUI functions, and algorithms.
Sapporo mimics the behavior of GRAPE hardware and uses the GPU to perform high-precision gravitational N-body simulations. It makes use of CUDA and therefore only works on NVIDIA GPUs. N-body codes currently running on GRAPE-6 can switch to Sapporo by a simple relinking of the library. Sapporo's precision is comparable to that of GRAPE-6, even though internally the GPU hardware is limited to single precision arithmetics. This limitation is effectively overcome by emulating double precision for calculating the distance between particles.
SARAH builds and analyzes SUSY and non-SUSY models. It calculates all vertices, mass matrices, tadpoles equations, one-loop corrections for tadpoles and self-energies, and two-loop RGEs for a given model. SARAH writes model files for a variety of other software packages for dark matter studies, includes many SUSY and non-SUSY models, and makes implementing new models efficient and straightforward. Written in Mathematica, SARAH can also use output from Vevacious (ascl:1904.019) to check for the global minimum for a given model and parameter point.
The Science Analysis System (SAS) is an extensive suite of software tasks developed to process the data collected by the XMM-Newton Observatory. The SAS extracts standard (spectra, light curves) and/or customized science products, and allows reproductions of the reduction pipelines run to get the PPS products from the ODFs files. SAS includes a powerful and extensive suite of FITS file manipulation packages based on the Data Access Layer library.
SASRST, a small collection of Python scripts, attempts to reproduce the semi-analytical one-dimensional equilibrium and non-equilibrium radiative shock tube solutions of Lowrie & Rauenzahn (2007) and Lowrie & Edwards (2008), respectively. The included code calculates the solution for a given set of input parameters and also plots the results using Matplotlib. This software was written to provide validation for numerical radiative shock tube solutions produced by a radiation hydrodynamics code.
SATMC is a general purpose, MCMC-based SED fitting code written for IDL and Python. Following Bayesian statistics and Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithms, SATMC derives the best fit parameter values and returns the sampling of parameter space used to construct confidence intervals and parameter-parameter confidence contours. The fitting may cover any range of wavelengths. The code is designed to incorporate any models (and potential priors) of the user's choice. The user guide lists all the relevant details for including observations, models and usage under both IDL and Python.
A Savitzky–Golay filter is often applied to data to smooth the data without greatly distorting the signal; however, almost all data inherently comes with noise, and the noise properties can differ from point to point. This python script improves upon the traditional Savitzky-Golay filter by accounting for error covariance in the data. The inputs and arguments are modeled after scipy.signal.savgol_filter.
SBGAT (Small Body Geophysical Analysis Tool) generates simulated data originating from small bodies shape models, combined with advanced shape-modification properties. It uses polyhedral shape models from which can be computed mass properties such as volume, center of mass, and inertia, synthetic observations such as lightcurves and radar, and which can be used within dynamical models, such as spherical harmonics and polyhedron gravity modeling. SBGAT can generate spherical harmonics expansions from constant-density polyhedra (and export them to JSON) and evaluate the spherical harmonics expansions. It can also generate YORP coefficients, multi-threaded Polyhedron Gravity Model gravity and potential evaluations, and synthetic light-curve and radar observations for single/primary asteroids.
SBGAT has two distinct packages: a dynamic library SBGAT Core that contains the data structure and algorithm backbone of SBGAT, and SBGAT Gui, which wraps the former inside a VTK, Qt user interface to facilitate user/data interaction. SBGAT Core can be used without the SBGAT Gui wrapper.
Astrometric and photometric calibrations have remained the most tiresome step in the reduction of large imaging surveys. SCAMP has been written to address this problem. The program efficiently computes accurate astrometric and photometric solutions for any arbitrary sequence of FITS images in a completely automatic way. SCAMP is released under the GNU General Public License.
Scanamorphos is an IDL program to build maps from scan observations made with bolometer arrays. Scanamorphos can post-process scan observations performed with the Herschel photometer arrays. This post-processing mainly consists in subtracting the total low-frequency noise (both its thermal and non-thermal components), masking cosmic ray hit residuals, and projecting the data onto a map. Although it was developed for Herschel, it is also applicable with minimal adjustment to scan observations made with other bolometer arrays provided they entail sufficient redundancy; it was successfully applied to P-Artemis, an instrument operating on the APEX telescope. Scanamorphos does not assume any particular noise model and does not apply any Fourier-space filtering to the data. It is an empirical tool using only the redundancy built in the observations, taking advantage of the fact that each portion of the sky is sampled at multiple times by multiple bolometers. The user is allowed to optionally visualize and control results at each intermediate step, but the processing is fully automated.
SCARLET performs source separation (aka "deblending") on multi-band images. It is geared towards optical astronomy, where scenes are composed of stars and galaxies, but it is straightforward to apply it to other imaging data. Separation is achieved through a constrained matrix factorization, which models each source with a Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) and a non-parametric morphology, or multiple such components per source. The code performs forced photometry (with PSF matching if needed) using an optimal weight function given by the signal-to-noise weighted morphology across bands. The approach works well if the sources in the scene have different colors and can be further strengthened by imposing various additional constraints/priors on each source. Because of its generic utility, this package provides a stand-alone implementation that contains the core components of the source separation algorithm. However, the development of this package is part of the LSST Science Pipeline; the meas_deblender package contains a wrapper to implement the algorithms here for the LSST stack.
SCEPtER (Stellar CharactEristics Pisa Estimation gRid) estimates the stellar mass and radius given a set of observable quantities; the results are obtained by adopting a maximum likelihood technique over a grid of pre-computed stellar models. The code is quite flexible since different observables can be used, depending on their availability, as well as different grids of models.
SciDB is a DMAS (Data Management and Analytics Software System) optimized for data management of big data and for big analytics. SciDB is organized around multidimensional array storage, a generalization of relational tables, and is designed to be scalable up to petabytes and beyond. Complex analytics are simplified with SciDB because arrays and vectors are first-class objects with built-in optimized operations. Spatial operators and time-series analysis are easy to express. Interfaces to common scientific tools like R as well as programming languages like C++ and Python are provided.
SCIMES identifies relevant molecular gas structures within dendrograms of emission using the spectral clustering paradigm. It is useful for decomposing objects in complex environments imaged at high resolution.
The Semi-automated multi-COmponent Universal Spectral-line fitting Engine (SCOUSE) is a spectral line fitting algorithm that fits Gaussian files to spectral line emission. It identifies the spatial area over which to fit the data and generates a grid of spectral averaging areas (SAAs). The spatially averaged spectra are fitted according to user-provided tolerance levels, and the best fit is selected using the Akaike Information Criterion, which weights the chisq of a best-fitting solution according to the number of free-parameters. A more detailed inspection of the spectra can be performed to improve the fit through an iterative process, after which SCOUSE integrates the new solutions into the solution file.
SearchCal builds an evolutive catalog of stars suitable as calibrators within any given user-defined angular distance and magnitude around a scientific target. SearchCal can select suitable bright calibration stars (V ≤ 10; K ≤ 5.0) for obtaining the ultimate precision of current interferometric instruments like the VLTI and faint calibration stars up to K ~ 15 around the scientific target. Star catalogs available at the CDS are searched via web requests and provide the useful astrometric and photometric informations for selecting calibrators. The missing photometries are computed with an accuracy of about 0.1 mag. The stellar angular diameter is estimated with a precision of about 10% through newly determined surface-brightness versus color-index relations based on the I, J, H and K magnitudes. For each star the squared visibility is computed taking into account the central wavelength and the maximum baseline of the predicted observations.
The stellar and binary evolution package SeBa is fully integrated into the kira integrator, although it can also be used as a stand-alone module for non-dynamical applications. Due to the interaction between stellar evolution and stellar dynamics, it is difficult to solve for the evolution of both systems in a completely self-consistent way. The trajectories of stars are computed using a block timestep scheme, as described earlier. Stellar and binary evolution is updated at fixed intervals (every 1/64 of a crossing time, typically a few thousand years). Any feedback between the two systems may thus experience a delay of at most one timestep. Internal evolution time steps may differ for each star and binary, and depend on binary period, perturbations due to neighbors, and the evolutionary state of the star. Time steps in this treatment vary from several milliseconds up to (at most) a million years.
Prior to recombination photons, electrons, and atomic nuclei rapidly scattered and behaved, almost, like a single tightly-coupled photon-baryon plasma. In order to solve the cosmological perturbation equations during that time, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) codes use the so-called tight-coupling approximation in which the problematic terms (i.e. the source of the stiffness) are expanded in inverse powers of the Thomson Opacity. Most codes only keep the terms linear in the inverse Thomson Opacity. We have developed a second-order tight-coupling code to test the validity of the usual first-order tight-coupling code. It is based on the publicly available code CAMB.
SEDobs uses state-of-the-art theoretical galaxy SEDs (spectral energy distributions) to create simulated observations of distant galaxies. It used BC03 and M05 theoretical models and allows the user to configure the simulated observation that are needed. For a given simulated galaxy, the user is able to simulate multi-spectral and multi-photometric observations.
SEDPY performs a variety of tasks for astronomical spectral energy distributions. It can generate synthetic photometry through any filter, provides detailed modeling of extinction curves, and offers basic aperture photometry algorithms. SEDPY can also store and interpolate model SEDs, convolve absolute or apparent fluxes, and calculate rest-frame magnitudes.
SEEK (Signal Extraction and Emission Kartographer) processes time-ordered-data from single dish radio telescopes or from the simulation pipline HIDE (ascl:1607.019), removes artifacts from Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), automatically applies flux calibration, and recovers the astronomical radio signal. With its companion code HIDE (ascl:1607.019), it provides end-to-end simulation and processing of radio survey data.
The Python package segueSelect automatically models the SDSS/SEGUE selection fraction -- the fraction of stars with good spectra -- as a continuous function of apparent magnitude for each plate. The selection function can be determined for any desired sample cuts in signal-to-noise ratio, u-g, r-i, and E(B-V). The package requires Pyfits (ascl:1207.009) and, for coordinate transformations, galpy (ascl:1411.008). It can calculate the KS probability that the spectropscopic sample was drawn from the underlying photometric sample with the model selection function, plot the cumulative distribution function in r-band apparent magnitude of the spectroscopic sample (red) and the photometric sample+selection-function-model for this plate, and, if galpy is installed, can transform velocities into the Galactic coordinate frame. The code can also determine the selection function for SEGUE K stars.
The self-lensing binary code with Markov chain code was used to analyze the self-lensing binary system KOI-3278. It includes the MCMC modeling and the key figures.
SENR (Simple, Efficient Numerical Relativity) provides the algorithmic framework that combines the C codes generated by NRPy+ (ascl:1807.025) into a functioning numerical relativity code. It is part of the numerical relativity code package SENR/NRPy+. The package extends previous implementations of the BSSN reference-metric formulation to a much broader class of curvilinear coordinate systems, making it suitable for modeling physical configurations with approximate or exact symmetries, such as modeling black hole dynamics.
SEP (Source Extraction and Photometry) makes the core algorithms of Source Extractor (ascl:1010.064) available as a library of standalone functions and classes. These operate directly on in-memory arrays (no FITS files or configuration files). The code is derived from the Source Extractor code base (written in C) and aims to produce results compatible with Source Extractor whenever possible. SEP consists of a C library with no dependencies outside the standard library and a Python module that wraps the C library in a Pythonic API. The Python wrapper operates on NumPy arrays with NumPy as its only dependency. It is generated using Cython.
From Source Extractor, SEP includes background estimation, image segmentation (including on-the-fly filtering and source deblending), aperture photometry in circular and elliptical apertures, and source measurements such as Kron radius, "windowed" position fitting, and half-light radius. It also adds the following features that are not available in Source Extractor: optimized matched filter for variable noise in source extraction; circular annulus and elliptical annulus aperture photometry functions; local background subtraction in shape consistent with aperture in aperture photometry functions; exact pixel overlap mode in all aperture photometry functions; and masking of elliptical regions on images.
Subpixel Event Repositioning (SER) techniques significantly improve the already unprecedented spatial resolution of Chandra X-ray imaging with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). Chandra CCD SER techniques are based on the premise that the impact position of events can be refined, based on the distribution of charge among affected CCD pixels. Unlike ACIS SER models that are restricted to corner split (3- and 4-pixel) events and assume that such events take place at the split pixel corners, this IDL code uses two-pixel splits as well, and incorporates more realistic estimates of photon impact positions.
SEREN is an astrophysical Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics code designed to investigate star and planet formation problems using self-gravitating hydrodynamics simulations of molecular clouds, star-forming cores, and protostellar disks.
SEREN is written in Fortran 95/2003 with a modular philosophy for adding features into the code. Each feature can be easily activated or deactivated by way of setting options in the Makefile before compiling the code. This has the added benefit of allowing unwanted features to be removed at the compilation stage resulting in a smaller and faster executable program. SEREN is written with OpenMP directives to allow parallelization on shared-memory architecture.
SERPent is an automated reduction and RFI-mitigation procedure that uses the SumThreshold methodology. It was originally developed for the LOFAR pipeline. SERPent is written in Parseltongue, enabling interaction with the Astronomical Image Processing Software (AIPS) program. Moreover, SERPent is a simple "out of the box" Python script, which is easy to set up and is free of compilers.
Sérsic is an implementation of the exact deprojection of Sérsic surface brightness profiles described in Baes and Gentile (2011). This code depends on the mpmath python library for an implementation of the Meijer G function required by the Baes and Gentile (hereafter B+G) formulas for rational values of the Sérsic index. Sérsic requires rational Sérsic indices, but any irrational number can be approximated arbitrarily well by some rational number. The code also depends on scipy, but the dependence is mostly for testing. The implementation of the formulas and the formulas themselves have undergone comprehensive testing.
The SETI Encryption code, written in Python, creates a message for use in testing the decryptability of a simulated incoming interstellar message. The code uses images in a portable bit map (PBM) format, then writes the corresponding bits into the message, and finally returns both a PBM image and a text (TXT) file of the entire message. The natural constants (c, G, h) and the wavelength of the message are defined in the first few lines of the code, followed by the reading of the input files and their conversion into 757 strings of 359 bits to give one page. Each header of a page, i.e. the little-endian binary code translation of the tempo-spatial yardstick, is calculated and written on-the-fly for each page.
SExSeg forces SExtractor (ascl:1010.064) to run using a pre-defined segmentation map (the definition of objects and their borders). The defined segments double as isophotal apertures. SExSeg alters the detection image based on a pre-defined segmenation map while preparing your "analysis image" by subtracting the background in a separate SExtractor run (using parameters you specify). SExtractor is then run in "double-image" mode with the altered detection image and background-subtracted analysis image.
This new software optimally detects, de-blends, measures and classifies sources from astronomical images: SExtractor (Source Extractor). A very reliable star/galaxy separation can be achieved on most images using a neural network trained with simulated images. Salient features of SExtractor include its ability to work on very large images, with minimal human intervention, and to deal with a wide variety of object shapes and magnitudes. It is therefore particularly suited to the analysis of large extragalactic surveys.
SFH is an efficient IDL tool that quickly computes accurate predictions for the baryon budget history in a galactic halo.
SFoF is a friends-of-friends galaxy cluster detection algorithm that operates in either spectroscopic or photometric redshift space. The linking parameters, both transverse and along the line-of-sight, change as a function of redshift to account for selection effects.
SGNAPS allows the user to plot a one-dimensional spectrum, together with the corresponding two-dimensional and a reference spectrum (for example the sky spectrum). This makes it possible to check on the reality of spectral features that are present in the one-dimensional spectrum, which could be due to bad sky subtraction or fringing residuals. It is also possible to zoom in and out all three spectra, edit the one-dimensional spectrum, smooth it with a simple square window function, measure the signal to noise over a selected wavelength interval, and fit the position of a selected spectral line. SGNAPS also allows the astronomer to obtain quick redshift estimates by providing a tool to fit or mark the position of a spectral line, and a function that will compute a list of possible redshifts based on a list of known lines in galaxy spectra. SGNAPS is derived from the plotting tools of VIPGI and contains almost all of their capabilities.
SgrbWorldModel, written in Fortran 90, presents an attempt at modeling the population distribution of the Short-duration class of Gamma-Ray Bursts (SGRBs) as detected by the NASA's now-defunct Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO). It is assumed that the population distribution of SGRBs is well fit by a multivariate log-normal distribution, whose differential cosmological rate of occurrence follows the Star-Formation-Rate (SFR) convolved with a log-normal binary-merger delay-time distribution. The best-fit parameters of the model are then found by maximizing the likelihood of the observed data by the BATSE detectors via a native built-in Adaptive Metropolis-Hastings Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (AMH-MCMC)Sampler that is part of the code. A model for the detection algorithm of the BATSE detectors is also provided.
Shadowfax simulates galaxy evolution. Written in object-oriented modular C++, it evolves a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. For the hydrodynamical integration, it makes use of a (co-) moving Lagrangian mesh. The code has a 2D and 3D version, contains utility programs to generate initial conditions and visualize simulation snapshots, and its input/output is compatible with a number of other simulation codes, e.g. Gadget2 (ascl:0003.001) and GIZMO (ascl:1410.003).
Complicated cosmic string loops will fragment until they reach simple, non-intersecting ("stable") configurations. Through extensive numerical study we characterize these attractor loop shapes including their length, velocity, kink, and cusp distributions. We find that an initial loop containing $M$ harmonic modes will, on average, split into 3M stable loops. These stable loops are approximately described by the degenerate kinky loop, which is planar and rectangular, independently of the number of modes on the initial loop. This is confirmed by an analytic construction of a stable family of perturbed degenerate kinky loops. The average stable loop is also found to have a 40% chance of containing a cusp. We examine the properties of stable loops of different lengths and find only slight variation. Finally we develop a new analytic scheme to explicitly solve the string constraint equations.
Shape is a flexible interactive 3D morpho-kinematical modeling application for astrophysics. It reduces the restrictions on the physical assumptions, data type and amount required for a reconstruction of an object's morphology. It applies interactive graphics and allows astrophysicists to provide a-priori knowledge about the object by interactively defining 3D structural elements. By direct comparison of model prediction with observational data, model parameters can then be automatically optimized to fit the observation.
Shapelets are a complete, orthonormal set of 2D basis functions constructed from Laguerre or Hermite polynomials weighted by a Gaussian. A linear combination of these functions can be used to model any image, in a similar way to Fourier or wavelet synthesis. The shapelet decomposition is particularly efficient for images localized in space, and provide a high level of compression for individual galaxies in astronomical data. The basis has many elegant mathematical properties that make it convenient for image analysis and processing.
Shark is a flexible semi-analytic galaxy formation model for easy exploration of different physical processes. Shark has been implemented with several models for gas cooling, active galactic nuclei, stellar and photo-ionization feedback, and star formation (SF). The software can determine the stellar mass function and stellar–halo mass relation at z=0–4; cosmic evolution of the star formation rate density, stellar mass, atomic and molecular hydrogen; local gas scaling relations; and structural galaxy properties. It performs particularly well for the mass–size relation for discs/bulges, the gas–stellar mass and stellar mass–metallicity relations. Shark is written in C++11 and has been parallelized with OpenMP.
The Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method (SHDOM) radiative transfer model computes polarized monochromatic or spectral band radiative transfer in a one, two, or three-dimensional medium for either collimated solar and/or thermal emission sources of radiation. The model is written in a variant of Fortran 77 and in Fortran90 and requires a Fortran 90 compiler. Also included are programs for generating the optical property files input to SHDOM from physical properties of water cloud particles and aerosols.
SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate lightcurves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, shell or stars as well as an empty space may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative tranfer. The program does not solve the inverse problem of finding the stellar and orbital parameters.
Current and upcoming wide-field, ground-based, broad-band imaging surveys promise to address a wide range of outstanding problems in galaxy formation and cosmology. Several such uses of ground-based data, especially weak gravitational lensing, require highly precise measurements of galaxy image statistics with careful correction for the effects of the point-spread function (PSF). The SHERA (SHEar Reconvolution Analysis) software simulates ground-based imaging data with realistic galaxy morphologies and observing conditions, starting from space-based data (from COSMOS, the Cosmological Evolution Survey) and accounting for the effects of the space-based PSF. This code simulates ground-based data, optionally with a weak lensing shear applied, in a model-independent way using a general Fourier space formalism. The utility of this pipeline is that it allows for a precise, realistic assessment of systematic errors due to the method of data processing, for example in extracting weak lensing galaxy shape measurements or galaxy radial profiles, given user-supplied observational conditions and real galaxy morphologies. Moreover, the simulations allow for the empirical test of error estimates and determination of parameter degeneracies, via generation of many noise maps. The public release of this software, along with a large sample of cleaned COSMOS galaxy images (corrected for charge transfer inefficiency), should enable upcoming ground-based imaging surveys to achieve their potential in the areas of precision weak lensing analysis, galaxy profile measurement, and other applications involving detailed image analysis.
This code is no longer maintained and has been superseded by GalSim (ascl:1402.009).
Sherpa is the CIAO (ascl:1311.006) modeling and fitting application made available by the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). It can be used for analysis of images, spectra and time series from many telescopes, including optical telescopes such as Hubble. Sherpa is flexible, modular and extensible. It has an IPython user interface and it is also an importable Python module. Sherpa models, optimization and statistic functions are available via both C++ and Python for software developers wishing to link such functions directly to their own compiled code.
The CIAO 4.3 Sherpa release supports fitting of 1-D X-ray spectra from Chandra and other X-ray missions, as well as 1-D non-X-ray data, including ASCII data arrays, radial profiles, and lightcurves. The options for grating data analysis include fitting the spectrum with multiple response files required for overlapping orders in LETG observations. Modeling of 2-D spatial data is fully supported, including the PSF and exposure maps. User specified models can be added to Sherpa with advanced "user model" functionality.
SHTOOLS is an archive of fortran 95 based software that can be used to perform (among others) spherical harmonic transforms and reconstructions, rotations of spherical harmonic coefficients, and multitaper spectral analyses on the sphere. The package accommodates any standard normalization of the spherical harmonic functions ("geodesy" 4π normalized, Schmidt semi-normalized, orthonormalized, and unnormalized), and either real or complex spherical harmonics can be employed. Spherical harmonic transforms are calculated by exact quadrature rules using either (1) the sampling theorem of Driscoll and Healy (1994) where data are equally sampled (or spaced) in latitude and longitude, or (2) Gauss-Legendre quadrature. A least squares inversion routine for irregularly sampled data is included as well. The Condon-Shortley phase factor of (-1)m can be used or excluded with the associated Legendre functions. The spherical harmonic transforms are accurate to approximately degree 2800, corresponding to a spatial resolution of better than 4 arc minutes. Routines are included for performing localized multitaper spectral analyses and standard gravity calculations, such as computation of the geoid, and the determination of the potential associated with finite-amplitude topography. The routines are fast. Spherical harmonic transforms and reconstructions take on the order of 1 second for bandwidths less than 600 and about 3 minutes for bandwidths close to 2800.
Shwirl visualizes spectral data cubes with meaningful coloring methods. The program has been developed to investigate transfer functions, which combines volumetric elements (or voxels) to set the color, and graphics shaders, functions used to compute several properties of the final image such as color, depth, and/or transparency, as enablers for scientific visualization of astronomical data. The program uses Astropy (ascl:1304.002) to handle FITS files and World Coordinate System, Qt (and PyQt) for the user interface, and VisPy, an object-oriented Python visualization library binding onto OpenGL.
sic (Sparse Inpainting Code) generates Gaussian, isotropic CMB realizations, masks them, and recovers the large-scale masked data using sparse inpainting; it is written in Fortran90.
sick infers astrophysical parameters from noisy observed spectra. Phenomena that can alter the data (e.g., redshift, continuum, instrumental broadening, outlier pixels) are modeled and simultaneously inferred with the astrophysical parameters of interest. This package relies on emcee (ascl:1303.002); it is best suited for situations where a grid of model spectra already exists, and one would like to infer model parameters given some data.
SICON (Stokes Inversion based on COnvolutional Neural networks) provides a three-dimensional cube of thermodynamical and magnetic properties from the interpretation of two-dimensional maps of Stokes profiles by use of a convolutional neural network. In addition to being much faster than parallelized inversion codes, SICON, when trained on synthetic Stokes profiles from two numerical simulations of different structures of the solar atmosphere, also provided a three-dimensional view of the physical properties of the region of interest in geometrical height, and pressure and Wilson depression properties that are decontaminated from the blurring effect of instrumental point spread functions.
Self-Interacting Dark Matter (SIDM) is a hypothetical model for cold dark matter in the Universe. A strong interaction between dark matter particles introduce a different physics inside dark-matter haloes, making the density profile cored, reduce the number of subhaloes, and trigger gravothermal collapse. sidm-nbody is an N-body simulation code with Direct Simulation Monte Carlo scattering for self interaction, and some codes to analyse gravothermal collapse of isolated haloes. The N-body simulation is based on GADGET 1.1.
SiFTO is an empirical method for modeling Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves by manipulating a spectral template. We make use of high-redshift SN data when training the model, allowing us to extend it bluer than rest-frame U. This increases the utility of our high-redshift SN observations by allowing us to use more of the available data. We find that when the shape of the light curve is described using a stretch prescription, applying the same stretch at all wavelengths is not an adequate description. SiFTO therefore uses a generalization of stretch which applies different stretch factors as a function of both the wavelength of the observed filter and the stretch in the rest-frame B band. SiFTO has been compared to other published light-curve models by applying them to the same set of SN photometry, and it's been demonstrated that SiFTO and SALT2 perform better than the alternatives when judged by the scatter around the best-fit luminosity distance relationship. When SiFTO and SALT2 are trained on the same data set the cosmological results agree.
SIGPROC is a package designed to standardize the initial analysis of the many types of fast-sampled pulsar data. Currently recognized machines are the Wide Band Arecibo Pulsar Processor (WAPP), the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the Arecibo Observatory Fourier Transform Machine (AOFTM), the Berkeley Pulsar Processors (BPP), the Parkes/Jodrell 1-bit filterbanks (SCAMP) and the filterbank at the Ooty radio telescope (OOTY). The SIGPROC tools should help users look at their data quickly, without the need to write (yet) another routine to read data or worry about big/little endian compatibility (byte swapping is handled automatically).
The ESO's VLT/SPHERE instrument includes a unique long-slit spectroscopy (LSS) mode coupled with Lyot coronagraphy in its infrared dual-band imager and spectrograph (IRDIS) for spectral characterization of young, giant exoplanets detected by direct imaging. The SILSS pipeline is a combination of the official SPHERE pipeline and additional custom IDL routines developed within the SPHERE consortium for the speckle subtraction and spectral extraction of a companion's spectrum; it offers a complete end-to-end pipeline, from raw data (science+calibrations) to a final spectrum of the companion. SILSS works on both the low-resolution (LRS) and medium-resolution (MRS) data, and allows correction for some of the known biases of the instrument. Documentation is included in the header of the main routine of the pipeline.
The SIM5 library contains routines for relativistic raytracing and radiation transfer in GR. Written C with a Python interface, it has a special focus on raytracing from accretion disks, tori, hot spots or any other 3D configuration of matter in Kerr geometry, but it can be used with any other metric as well. It handles both optically thick and thin sources as well as transport of polarization of the radiation and calculates the propagation of light rays from the source to an observer through a curved spacetime. It supports parallelization and runs on GPUs.
SimCADO is a python package which allows the user to simulate observations with any NIR/Vis imaging system. The package was originally designed to simulate images for the European extremely large telescope (ELT) and MICADO, however with the proper input it is capable of simulating observations from many different Telescope + Instrument configurations.
The documentation can be found here: https://simcado.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
SimFast 21 generates a simulation of the cosmological 21cm signal. While limited to low spatial resolution, the next generation low-frequency radio interferometers that target 21 cm observations during the era of reionization and prior will have instantaneous fields-of-view that are many tens of square degrees on the sky. Predictions related to various statistical measurements of the 21 cm brightness temperature must then be pursued with numerical simulations of reionization with correspondingly large volume box sizes, of order 1000 Mpc on one side. The authors pursued a semi-numerical scheme to simulate the 21 cm signal during and prior to Reionization by extending a hybrid approach where simulations are performed by first laying down the linear dark matter density field, accounting for the non-linear evolution of the density field based on second-order linear perturbation theory as specified by the Zel'dovich approximation, and then specifying the location and mass of collapsed dark matter halos using the excursion-set formalism. The location of ionizing sources and the time evolving distribution of ionization field is also specified using an excursion-set algorithm. They account for the brightness temperature evolution through the coupling between spin and gas temperature due to collisions, radiative coupling in the presence of Lyman-alpha photons and heating of the intergalactic medium, such as due to a background of X-ray photons. The method is capable of producing the required large volume simulations with adequate resolution in a reasonable time so a large number of realizations can be obtained with variations in assumptions related to astrophysics and background cosmology that govern the 21 cm signal.
This is an implementation of a fairly simple-minded luminosity distance fitter, intended for use with supernova data. The calculational technique is based on evaluating the $chi^2$ of the model fit on a grid and marginalization over various nuisance parameters. Of course, the nature of these things is that this code has gotten steadily more complex, so perhaps the simple moniker is no longer justified.
SimpLens illustrates some of the theoretical ideas important in gravitational lensing in an interactive way. After setting parameters for elliptical mass distribution and external mass, SimpLens displays the mass profile and source position, the lens potential and image locations, and indicate the image magnifications and contours of virtual light-travel time. A lens profile can be made shallower or steeper with little change in the image positions and with only total magnification affected.
The R-package SimSpin measures the kinematics of a galaxy simulation as if it had been observed using an IFU. The functions included in the package can produce a kinematic data cube and measure the "observables" from this data cube, specifically the observable spin parameter λr. This package, once installed, is fully documented and tested.
simuTrans models transit light curves affected by gravity-darkened stars. The code defines a star on a grid by modeling the brightness of each point as blackbody emission, then sets a series of parameters and uses emcee (ascl:1303.002) to explore the posterior probability distribution for the remaining fitted parameters and determine their best-fit values.
SIMX simulates a photon-counting detector's response to an input source, including a simplified model of any telescope. The code is not a full ray-trace, but a convolution tool that uses standard descriptions of telescope PSF (via either a simple Gaussian parameter, an energy-dependent encircled-energy function, or an image of the PSF) and the detector response (using the OGIP response function) to model how sources will appear. simx uses a predefined set of PSFs, vignetting information, and instrumental responses and outputs to make the simulation. It is designed to be a 'approximation' tool to estimate issues such as source confusion, background effects, pileup, and other similar issues.
The SINFONI pipeline reduces data from the Very Large Telescope's SINFONI (Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observations in the Near Infrared) instrument. It can evaluate the detector linearity and generate a corresponding non linear pixel map, create a master dark and a hot-pixel map, a master flat and a map of pixels which have intensities greater than a given threshold. It can also compute the optical distortions and slitlets distances, and perform wavelength calibration, PSF, telluric standard and other science data reduction, and can coadd bad pixel maps, collapse a cube to an image over a given wavelength range, perform cube arithmetics, among other useful tasks.
SofteningLength: Because Newton's law of Gravitation diverges as the relative separations |r'-r| tends to zero, it is common to add a positive constant λ also known as the "softening length", i.e. :
SingLe determines the appropriate value of this Softening Length λ for a given disc local structure (thickness 2h and vertical stratification ρ), in the axially symmetric, flat disc limit, preserving at best the Newtonian character of the gravitational potential and associated forces. Mass density ρ(z) is assumed to be locally expandable in the z-direction according to:
SIP (Systematics-Insensitive Periodograms) extends the generative model used to create traditional sine-fitting periodograms for finding the frequency of a sinusoid by including systematic trends based on a set of eigen light curves in the generative model in addition to using a sum of sine and cosine functions over a grid of frequencies, producing periodograms with vastly reduced systematic features. Acoustic oscillations in giant stars and measurement of stellar rotation periods can be recovered from the SIP periodograms without detrending. The code can also be applied to detection other periodic phenomena, including eclipsing binaries and short-period exoplanet candidates.
SIR is a general-purpose code capable of dealing with gradients of the physical quantities with height. It admits one and two-component model atmospheres. It allows the recovery of the stratification of the temperature, the magnetic field vector, and the line of sight velocity through the atmosphere, and the micro- and macroturbulence velocities - which are assumed to be constant with depth. It is based on the response functions, which enter a Marquardt nonlinear least-squares algorithm in a natural way. Response functions are calculated at the same time as the full radiative transfer equation for polarized light is integrated, which determines values of many free parameters in a reasonable computation time. SIR demonstrates high stability, accuracy, and uniqueness of results, even when simulated observations present signal-to-noise ratios of the order of the lowest acceptable values in real observations.
SITools2 is a CNES generic tool performed by a joint effort between CNES and scientific laboratories. SITools provides a self-manageable data access layer deployed on already existing scientific laboratory databases. This new version of SITools is a JAVA-based framework, under open source license, that provides a portable archive system, highly configurable, easy to use by laboratories, with a plugin mechanism so developers can add their own applications.
SIXTE simulates X-Ray telescope observation; the software performs instrument performance analyses and produces simulated event files for mission and analysis studies. SIXTE strives to find a compromise between exactness of the simulation and speed. Using calibration files such as the PSF, RMF and ARF makes efficient simulations possible at comparably high speed, even though they include nonlinear effects such as pileup. Setups for some current and future missions, such as XMM-Newton and Athena, are included in the package; others can be added by the user with relatively little effort through specifying the main instrument characteristics in a flexible, human-readable XML-based format. Properties of X-ray sources to be simulated are described in a detector-independent format, i.e., the same input can be used for simulating observations with all available instruments, and the same input can also be used for simulations with the SIMX simulator. The input files are easily generated from standard data such as XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) spectral models or FITS images with tools provided with the SIXTE distribution. The input data scale well from single point sources up to very complicated setups.
SKID finds gravitationally bound groups in N-body simulations. The SKID program will group different types of particles depending on the type of input binary file. This could be either dark matter particles, gas particles, star particles or gas and star particles depending on what is in the input tipsy binary file. Once groups with at least a certain minimum number of members have been determined, SKID will remove particles which are not bound to the group. SKID must use the original positions of all the particles to determine whether or not particles are bound. This procedure which we call unbinding, is again dependent on the type of grouping we are dealing with. There are two cases, one for dark matter only or star particles only (case 1 unbinding), the other for inputs including gas (also stars in a dark matter environment this is case 2 unbinding).
Skid version 1.3 is a much improved version of the old denmax-1.1 version. The new name was given to avoid confusion with the DENMAX program of Gelb & Bertschinger, and although it is based on the same idea it represents a substantial evolution in the method.
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