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VULCAN describes gaseous chemistry from 500 to 2500 K using a reduced C-H-O chemical network with about 300 reactions. It uses eddy diffusion to mimic atmospheric dynamics and excludes photochemistry, and can be used to examine the theoretical trends produced when the temperature-pressure profile and carbon-to-oxygen ratio are varied.
FastChem is an equilibrium chemistry code that calculates the chemical composition of the gas phase for given temperatures and pressures. Written in C++, it is based on a semi-analytic approach and is optimized for extremely fast and accurate calculations.
HELIOS, a radiative transfer code, is constructed for studying exoplanetary atmospheres. The model atmospheres of HELIOS are one-dimensional and plane-parallel, and the equation of radiative transfer is solved in the two-stream approximation with non-isotropic scattering. Though HELIOS can be used alone, the opacity calculator HELIOS-K (ascl:1503.004) can be used with it to provide the molecular opacities.
gCMCRT globally processes 3D atmospheric data, and as a fully 3D model, it avoids the biases and assumptions present when using 1D models to process 3D structures. It is well suited to performing the post-processing of large parameter GCM model grids, and provides simple pipelines that convert the 3D GCM structures from many well used GCMs in the community to the gCMCRT format, interpolating chemical abundances (if needed) and performing the required spectra calculation. The high-resolution spectra modes of gCMCRT provide an additional highly useful capability for 3D modellers to directly compare output to high-resolution spectral data.
ExoJAX provides auto-differentiable line-by-line spectral modeling of exoplanets/brown dwarfs/M dwarfs using JAX (ascl:2111.002). In a nutshell, ExoJAX allows the user to do a HMC-NUTS fitting using the latest molecular/atomic data in ExoMol, HITRAN/HITEMP, and VALD3. The code enables a fully Bayesian inference of the high-dispersion data to fit the line-by-line spectral computation to the observed spectrum, from end-to-end (i.e. from molecular/atomic databases to real spectra), by combining it with the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo in recent probabilistic programming languages such as NumPyro.
Helios-r2 performs atmospheric retrieval of brown dwarf and exoplanet spectra. It uses a Bayesian statistics approach by employing a nested sampling method to generate posterior distributions and calculate the Bayesian evidence. The nested sampling itself is done by Multinest (ascl:1109.006). The computationally most demanding parts of the model have been written in NVIDIA's CUDA language for an increase in computational speed. Successful applications include retrieval of brown dwarf emission spectra and secondary eclipse measurements of exoplanets.