iSpec is an integrated software framework written in Python for the treatment and analysis of stellar spectra and abundances. Spectra treatment functions include cosmic rays removal, continuum normalization, resolution degradation, and telluric lines identification. It can also perform radial velocity determination and correction and resampling. iSpec can also determine atmospheric parameters (i.e effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, micro/macroturbulence, rotation) and individual chemical abundances by using either the synthetic spectra fitting technique or equivalent widths method. The synthesis is performed with SPECTRUM (ascl:9910.002).
IFSFIT is a general-purpose IDL library for fitting the continuum, emission lines, and absorption lines in integral field spectra. It uses PPXF (ascl:1210.002) to find the best fit stellar continuum (using a user-defined library of stellar templates and including additive polynomials), or optionally a user-defined method to find the best fit continuum. It uses MPFIT (ascl:1208.019) to simultaneously fit Gaussians to any number of emission lines and emission line velocity components. It will also fit the NaI D feature using analytic absorption and/or emission-line profiles.
IFSRED is a general-purpose library for reducing data from integral field spectrographs (IFSs). For a general IFS data cube, it contains IDL routines to: (1) find and apply a zero-point shift in a wavelength solution on a spaxel-by-spaxel basis, using sky lines; (2) find the spatial coordinates of a flux peak; (3) empirically correct for differential atmospheric refraction; (4) mosaic dithered exposures; (5) (integer) rebin; and (6) apply a telluric correction. A sky-subtraction routine for data from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph and Imager (GMOS) that can be easily modified for any instrument is also included. IFSRED also contains additional software specific to reducing data from GMOS and the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS).
LANL* calculates the magnetic drift invariant L*, used for modeling radiation belt dynamics and other space weather applications, six orders of magnitude (~ one million times) faster than convectional approaches that require global numerical field lines tracing and integration. It is based on a modern machine learning technique (feed-forward artificial neural network) by supervising a large data pool obtained from the IRBEM library, which is the traditional source for numerically calculating the L* values. The pool consists of about 100,000 samples randomly distributed within the magnetosphere (r: [1.03, 11.5] Re) and within a whole solar cycle from 1/1/1994 to 1/1/2005. There are seven LANL* models, each corresponding to its underlying magnetic field configuration that is used to create the data sample pool. This model has applications to real-time radiation belt forecasting, analysis of data sets involving tens of satellite-years of observations, and other problems in space weather.
The Tsyganenko models are semi-empirical best-fit representations for the magnetic field, based on a large number of satellite observations (IMP, HEOS, ISEE, POLAR, Geotail, GOES, etc). The models include the contributions from major external magnetospheric sources: ring current, magnetotail current system, magnetopause currents, and large-scale system of field-aligned currents.
mixT accurately predicts T derived from a single-temperature fit for a multi-component thermal plasma. It can be applied in the deprojection analysis of objects with the temperature and metallicity gradients, for correction of the PSF effects, for consistent comparison of numerical simulations of galaxy clusters and groups with the X-ray observations, and for estimating how emission from undetected components can bias the global X-ray spectral analysis.
WSClean (w-stacking clean) is a fast generic widefield imager. It uses the w-stacking algorithm and can make use of the w-snapshot algorithm. It supports full-sky imaging and proper beam correction for homogeneous dipole arrays such as the MWA. WSClean allows Hogbom and Cotton-Schwab cleaning, and can clean polarizations joinedly. All operations are performed on the CPU; it is not specialized for GPUs.
PhotoRApToR (PHOTOmetric Research APplication TO Redshifts) solves regression and classification problems and is specialized for photo-z estimation. PhotoRApToR offers data table manipulation capabilities and 2D and 3D graphics tools for data visualization; it also provides a statistical report for both classification and regression experiments. The code is written in Java; the machine learning model is in C++ to increase the core execution speed.
APS finds Frequentist confidence limits on high-dimensional parameter spaces by using Gaussian Process interpolation to identify regions of parameter space for which chisquared is less than or equal to some specified limit. The code is written in C++, is robust against multi-modal chisquared functions and converges comparably fast to Monte Carlo methods. Code is also provided to draw Bayesian credible limits using the outputs of APS, though this code does not converge as well. APS requires the linear algebra libraries LAPACK, BLAS, and ARPACK (ascl:1311.010) to run.
bamr is an MPI implementation of a Bayesian analysis of neutron star mass and radius data that determines the mass versus radius curve and the equation of state of dense matter. Written in C++, bamr provides some EOS models. This code requires O2scl (ascl:1408.019) be installed before compilation.
O2scl is an object-oriented library for scientific computing in C++ useful for solving, minimizing, differentiating, integrating, interpolating, optimizing, approximating, analyzing, fitting, and more. Many classes operate on generic function and vector types; it includes classes based on GSL and CERNLIB. O2scl also contains code for computing the basic thermodynamic integrals for fermions and bosons, for generating almost all of the most common equations of state of nuclear and neutron star matter, and for solving the TOV equations. O2scl can be used on Linux, Mac and Windows (Cygwin) platforms and has extensive documentation.
CosmoPhotoz determines photometric redshifts from galaxies utilizing their magnitudes. The method uses generalized linear models which reproduce the physical aspects of the output distribution. The code can adopt gamma or inverse gaussian families, either from a frequentist or a Bayesian perspective. A set of publicly available libraries and a web application are available. This software allows users to apply a set of GLMs to their own photometric catalogs and generates publication quality plots with no involvement from the user. The code additionally provides a Shiny application providing a simple user interface.
RDGEN is a collection of routines for data handling, display, and adjusting, with a facility which helps to set up files for using with VPFIT (ascl:1408.015); it is included in the VPFIT distribution file. It is useful for setting region boundaries and initial guesses for VPFIT, for displaying the accumulated results, for examining by eye particular redshift systems and fits to them, testing that the error array is a true reflection of the rms scatter in the data, comparing spectra and generally examining and even modifying the data.
vpguess facilitates the fitting of multiple Voigt profiles to spectroscopic data. It is a graphical interface to VPFIT (ascl:1408.015). Originally meant to simplify the process of setting up first guesses for a subsequent fit with VPFIT, it has developed into a full interface to VPFIT. It may also be used independently of VPFIT for displaying data, playing around with data and models, "chi-by-eye" fits, displaying the result of a proper fit, pretty plots, etc. vpguess is written in C, and the graphics are based on PGPLOT (ascl:1103.002).
The VPFIT program fits multiple Voigt profiles (convolved with the instrument profiles) to spectroscopic data that is in FITS or an ASCII file. It requires CFITSIO (ascl:1010.001) and PGPLOT (ascl:1103.002); the tarball includes RDGEN (ascl:1408.017), which can be used with VPFIT to set up the fits, fit the profiles, and examine the result in interactive mode for setting up initial guesses; vpguess (ascl:1408.016) can also be used to set up an initial file.
pieflag compares bandpass-calibrated data to a clean reference channel and identifies and flags essentially all bad data. pieflag compares visibility amplitudes in each frequency channel to a 'reference' channel that is rfi-free (or manually ensured to be rfi-free). pieflag performs this comparison independently for each correlation on each baseline, but will flag all correlations if threshold conditions are met. To operate effectively, pieflag must be supplied with bandpass-calibrated data. pieflag has two core modes of operation (static and dynamic flagging) with an additional extend mode; the type of data largely determines which mode to choose. Instructions for pre-processing data and selecting the mode of operation are provided in the help file. Once pre-processing and selecting the mode of operation are done, pieflag should work well 'out of the box' with its default parameters.
NumCosmo is a free software C library whose main purposes are to test cosmological models using observational data and to provide a set of tools to perform cosmological calculations. The software implements three different probes: cosmic microwave background (CMB), supernovae type Ia (SNeIa) and large scale structure (LSS) information, such as baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and galaxy cluster abundance. The code supports a joint analysis of these data and the parameter space can include cosmological and phenomenological parameters. NumCosmo matter power spectrum and CMB codes were written independent of other implementations such as CMBFAST (ascl:9909.004), CAMB (ascl:1102.026), etc.
The library structure simplifies the inclusion of non-standard cosmological models. Besides the functions related to cosmological quantities, this library also implements mathematical and statistical tools. The former were developed to enable the inclusion of other probes and/or theoretical models and to optimize the codes. The statistical framework comprises algorithms which define likelihood functions, minimization, Monte Carlo, Fisher Matrix and profile likelihood methods.
LightcurveMC is a versatile and easily extended simulation suite for testing the performance of time series analysis tools under controlled conditions. It is designed to be highly modular, allowing new lightcurve types or new analysis tools to be introduced without excessive development overhead. The statistical tools are completely agnostic to how the lightcurve data is generated, and the lightcurve generators are completely agnostic to how the data will be analyzed. The use of fixed random seeds throughout guarantees that the program generates consistent results from run to run.
LightcurveMC can generate periodic light curves having a variety of shapes and stochastic light curves having a variety of correlation properties. It features two error models (Gaussian measurement and signal injection using a randomized sample of base light curves), testing of C1 shape statistic, periodograms, ΔmΔt plots, autocorrelation function plots, peak-finding plots, and Gaussian process regression. The code is written in C++ and R.
GALAPAGOS-C is a C implementation of the IDL code GALAPAGOS (ascl:1203.002). It processes a complete set of survey images through automation of source detection via SExtractor (ascl:1010.064), postage stamp cutting, object mask preparation, sky background estimation and complex two-dimensional light profile Sérsic modelling via GALFIT (ascl:1104.010). GALAPAGOS-C uses MPI-parallelization, thus allowing quick processing of large data sets. The code can fit multiple Sérsic profiles to each galaxy, each representing distinct galaxy components (e.g. bulge, disc, bar), and optionally can fit asymmetric Fourier mode distortions.
IIPImage is an advanced high-performance feature-rich image server system that enables online access to full resolution floating point (as well as other bit depth) images at terabyte scales. Paired with the VisiOmatic (ascl:1408.010) celestial image viewer, the system can comfortably handle gigapixel size images as well as advanced image features such as both 8, 16 and 32 bit depths, CIELAB colorimetric images and scientific imagery such as multispectral images. Streaming is tile-based, which enables viewing, navigating and zooming in real-time around gigapixel size images. Source images can be in either TIFF or JPEG2000 format. Whole images or regions within images can also be rapidly and dynamically resized and exported by the server from a single source image without the need to store multiple files in various sizes.
GalIC (GALaxy Initial Conditions) is an implementation of an iterative method to construct steady state composite halo-disk-bulge galaxy models with prescribed density distribution and velocity anisotropy that can be used as initial conditions for N-body simulations. The code is parallelized for distributed memory based on MPI. While running, GalIC produces "snapshot files" that can be used as initial conditions files. GalIC supports the three file formats ('type1' format, the slightly improved 'type2' format, and an HDF5 format) of the GADGET (ascl:0003.001) code for its output snapshot files.
Skycorr is an instrument-independent sky subtraction code that uses physically motivated line group scaling in the reference sky spectrum by a fitting approach for an improved sky line removal in the object spectrum. Possible wavelength shifts between both spectra are corrected by fitting Chebyshev polynomials and advanced rebinning without resolution decrease. For the correction, the optimized sky line spectrum and the automatically separated sky continuum (without scaling) is subtracted from the input object spectrum. Tests show that Skycorr performs well (per cent level residuals) for data in different wavelength regimes and of different resolution, even in the cases of relatively long time lags between the object and the reference sky spectrum. Lower quality results are mainly restricted to wavelengths not dominated by airglow lines or pseudo continua by unresolved strong emission bands.
SPAM is a extension to AIPS for reducing high-resolution, low-frequency radio interferometric observations. Direction-dependent ionospheric calibration and image-plane ripple suppression are among the features that help to make high-quality sub-GHz images. Data reductions are captured in well-tested Python scripts that execute AIPS tasks directly (mostly during initial data reduction steps), call high-level functions that make multiple AIPS or ParselTongue calls, and require few manual operations.
POET (Planetary Orbital Evolution due to Tides) calculates the orbital evolution of a system consisting of a single star with a single planet in orbit under the influence of tides. The following effects are The evolutions of the semimajor axis of the orbit due to the tidal dissipation in the star and the angular momentum of the stellar convective envelope by the tidal coupling are taken into account. In addition, the evolution includes the transfer of angular momentum between the stellar convective and radiative zones, effect of the stellar evolution on the tidal dissipation efficiency, and stellar core and envelope spins and loss of stellar convective zone angular momentum to a magnetically launched wind. POET can be used out of the box, and can also be extended and modified.
HEASOFT combines XANADU, high-level, multi-mission software for X-ray astronomical spectral, timing, and imaging data analysis tasks, and FTOOLS (ascl:9912.002), general and mission-specific software to manipulate FITS files, into one package. It also contains contains the NuSTAR subpackage of tasks, NuSTAR Data Analysis Software (NuSTARDAS). The source code for the software can be downloaded; precompiled executables for the most widely used computer platforms are also available for download. As an additional service, HEAsoft tasks can be directly from a web browser via WebHera.
ISOPHOT is one of the instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). ISOPHOT Interactive Analysis (PIA) is a scientific and calibration interactive data analysis tool for ISOPHOT data reduction. Written in IDL under Xwindows, PIA offers a full context sensitive graphical interface for retrieving, accessing and analyzing ISOPHOT data. It is available in two nearly identical versions; a general observers version omits the calibration sequences.
The Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) was one of two complementary spectrometers on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). LIA (LWS Interactive Analysis) is used for processing data from the LWS. It provides access to the different processing steps, including visualization of intermediate products and interactive manipulation of the data at each stage.
Imfit is an open-source astronomical image-fitting program specialized for galaxies but potentially useful for other sources, which is fast, flexible, and highly extensible. Its object-oriented design allows new types of image components (2D surface-brightness functions) to be easily written and added to the program. Image functions provided with Imfit include Sersic, exponential, and Gaussian galaxy decompositions along with Core-Sersic and broken-exponential profiles, elliptical rings, and three components that perform line-of-sight integration through 3D luminosity-density models of disks and rings seen at arbitrary inclinations.
Available minimization algorithms include Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead simplex, and Differential Evolution, allowing trade-offs between speed and decreased sensitivity to local minima in the fit landscape. Minimization can be done using the standard chi^2 statistic (using either data or model values to estimate per-pixel Gaussian errors, or else user-supplied error images) or the Cash statistic; the latter is particularly appropriate for cases of Poisson data in the low-count regime.
The C++ source code for Imfit is available under the GNU Public License.
Halogen, written in C, generates multimass spherically symmetric initial conditions for N-body simulations. A large family of radial density profiles is supported. The initial conditions are sampled from the full distribution function.
EZ_Ages is an IDL code package that computes the mean, light-weighted stellar population age, [Fe/H], and abundance enhancements [Mg/Fe], [C/Fe], [N/Fe], and [Ca/Fe] for unresolved stellar populations. This is accomplished by comparing Lick index line strengths between the data and the stellar population models of Schiavon (2007), using a method described in Graves & Schiavon (2008). The algorithm uses the inversion of index-index model grids to determine ages and abundances, and exploits the sensitivities of the various Lick indices to measure Mg, C, N, and Ca enhancements over their solar abundances with respect to Fe.
Written in Python, AstroML is a library of statistical and machine learning routines for analyzing astronomical data in python, loaders for several open astronomical datasets, and a large suite of examples of analyzing and visualizing astronomical datasets. An optional companion library, astroML_addons, is available; it requires a C compiler and contains faster and more efficient implementations of certain algorithms in compiled code.
Written in Python and utilizing ParselTongue (ascl:1208.020) to interface with AIPS (ascl:9911.003), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline processes, calibrates and images data from the UK's radio interferometric array (Multi-Element Remote-Linked Interferometer Network). Driven by a plain text input file, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent (ascl:1312.001), carry out some or all of the calibration procedures (including self-calibration), and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so data quality can be assessed.
Brut, written in Python, identifies bubbles in infrared images of the Galactic midplane; it uses a database of known bubbles from the Milky Way Project and Spitzer images to build an automatic bubble classifier. The classifier is based on the Random Forest algorithm, and uses the WiseRF implementation of this algorithm.
BayesFlare identifies flaring events in light curves released by the Kepler mission; it identifies even weak events by making use of the flare signal shape. The package contains functions to perform Bayesian hypothesis testing comparing the probability of light curves containing flares to that of them containing noise (or non-flare-like) artifacts. BayesFlare includes functions in its amplitude-marginalizer suite to account for underlying sinusoidal variations in light curve data; it includes such variations in the signal model, and then analytically marginalizes over them.
The Void IDentification and Examination toolkit (VIDE) identifies voids using a modified version of the parameter-free void finder ZOBOV (ascl:1304.005); a Voronoi tessellation of the tracer particles is used to estimate the density field followed by a watershed algorithm to group Voronoi cells into zones and subsequently voids. Output is a summary of void properties in plain ASCII; a Python API is provided for analysis tasks, including loading and manipulating void catalogs and particle members, filtering, plotting, computing clustering statistics, stacking, comparing catalogs, and fitting density profiles.
VStar is a multi-platform, easy-to-use variable star data visualization and analysis tool. Data for a star can be read from the AAVSO (American Association of Variable Star Observers) database or from CSV and TSV files. VStar displays light curves and phase plots, can produce a mean curve, and analyzes time-frequency with Weighted Wavelet Z-Transform. It offers tools for period analysis, filtering, and other functions.
PINGSoft2 visualizes, manipulates and analyzes integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data based on either 3D cubes or Raw Stacked Spectra (RSS) format. Any IFS data can be adapted to work with PINGSoft2, regardless of the original data format and the size/shape of the spaxel. Written in IDL, PINGSoft2 is optimized for fast visualization rendering; it also includes various routines useful for generic astronomy and spectroscopy tasks.
kungifu is a set of IDL software routines designed for the calibration and reduction of fiber-fed integral-field unit (IFU) astronomical spectroscopy. These routines can perform optimal extraction of IFU data and allow relative and absolute wavelength calibration to within a few hundredths of a pixel (for unbinned data) across 1200-2000 fibers. kungifu does nearly Poisson-limited sky subtraction, even in the I band, and can rebin in wavelength. The Princeton IDLUTILS and IDLSPEC2D packages must be installed for kungifu to run.
CLE, written in Fortran 77, synthesizes Stokes profiles of forbidden lines such as Fe XIII 1074.7nm, formed in magnetic dipole transitions under coronal conditions. The lines are assumed to be optically thin, excited by (anisotropic) photospheric radiation and thermal particle collisions.
Period04 statistically analyzes large astronomical time series containing gaps. It calculates formal uncertainties, can extract the individual frequencies from the multiperiodic content of time series, and provides a flexible interface to perform multiple-frequency fits with a combination of least-squares fitting and the discrete Fourier transform algorithm. Period04, written in Java/C++, supports the SAMP communication protocol to provide interoperability with other applications of the Virtual Observatory. It is a reworked and extended version of Period98 (Sperl 1998) and PERIOD/PERDET (Breger 1990).
Exopop is a general hierarchical probabilistic framework for making justified inferences about the population of exoplanets. Written in python, it requires that the occurrence rate density be a smooth function of period and radius (employing a Gaussian process) and takes survey completeness and observational uncertainties into account. Exopop produces more accurate estimates of the whole population than standard procedures based on weighting by inverse detection efficiency.
ASTRORAY employs a method of ray tracing and performs polarized radiative transfer of (cyclo-)synchrotron radiation. The radiative transfer is conducted in curved space-time near rotating black holes described by Kerr-Schild metric. Three-dimensional general relativistic magneto hydrodynamic (3D GRMHD) simulations, in particular performed with variations of the HARM code, serve as an input to ASTRORAY. The code has been applied to reproduce the sub-mm synchrotron bump in the spectrum of Sgr A*, and to test the detectability of quasi-periodic oscillations in its light curve. ASTRORAY can be readily applied to model radio/sub-mm polarized spectra of jets and cores of other low-luminosity active galactic nuclei. For example, ASTRORAY is uniquely suitable to self-consistently model Faraday rotation measure and circular polarization fraction in jets.
The SAMI (Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph) pipeline reduces data from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) for the SAMI Galaxy Survey. The python code organizes SAMI data and, along with the AAO 2dfdr package, carries out all steps in the data reduction, from raw data to fully calibrated datacubes. The principal steps are: data management, use of 2dfdr to produce row-stacked spectra, flux calibration, correction for telluric absorption, removal of atmospheric dispersion, alignment of dithered exposures, and drizzling onto a regular output grid. Variance and covariance information is tracked throughout the pipeline. Some quality control routines are also included.
The MATLAB package for astronomy and astrophysics is a collection of software tools and modular functions for astronomy and astrophysics, written in the MATLAB environment. It includes over 700 MATLAB functions and a few tens of data files and astronomical catalogs. The scripts cover a wide range of subjects including: astronomical image processing, ds9 control, astronomical spectra, optics and diffraction phenomena, catalog retrieval and searches, celestial maps and projections, Solar System ephemerides, planar and spherical geometry, time and coordinates conversion and manipulation, cosmology, gravitational lensing, function fitting, general utilities, plotting utilities, statistics, and time series analysis.
Monte Carlo Merger Analysis Code (MCMAC) aids in the study of merging clusters. It takes observed priors on each subcluster's mass, radial velocity, and projected separation, draws randomly from those priors, and uses them in a analytic model to get posterior PDF's for merger dynamic properties of interest (e.g. collision velocity, time since collision).
Specdre performs spectroscopy data reduction and analysis. General features of the package include data cube manipulation, arc line calibration, resampling and spectral fitting. Particular care is taken with error propagation, including tracking covariance. SPECDRE is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
TWODSPEC offers programs for the reduction and analysis of long-slit and optical fiber array spectra, implemented as extensions to the FIGARO package (ascl:1203.013). The software are currently distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012). These programs are designed to do as much as possible for the user, to assist quick reduction and analysis of data; for example, LONGSLIT can fit multiple Gaussians to line profiles in batch and decides how many components to fit.
The Starfish Diagram is a statistical visualization tool that simultaneously displays the properties of an individual and its parent sample through a series of histograms. The code is useful for large datasets for which one needs to understand the standing or significance of a single entry.
STARMAN is a stellar photometry package designed for the reduction of data from imaging systems. Its main components are crowded-field photometry programs, aperture photometry programs, a star finding program, and a CCD reduction program.
Image and table handling are served by a large number of programs which have a general use in photometry and other types of work. The package is a coherent whole, for use in the entire process of stellar photometry from raw images to the final standard-system magnitudes and their plotting as color-magnitude and color-color diagrams. It was distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
JCMTDR reduces continuum on-the-fly mapping data obtained with UKT14 or the heterodyne instruments using the IFD on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. This program reduces archive data and heterodyne beam maps and was distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
GAUSSCLUMPS decomposes a spectral map into Gaussian-shape clumps. The clump-finding algorithm decomposes a spectral data cube by iteratively removing 3-D Gaussians as representative clumps. GAUSSCLUMPS was originally a separate code distribution but is now a contributed package in GILDAS (ascl:1305.010). A reimplementation can also be found in CUPID (ascl:1311.007).
The COCO program converts star coordinates from one system to another. Both the improved IAU system, post-1976, and the old pre-1976 system are supported. COCO can perform accurate transformations between multiple coordinate systems. COCO’s user-interface is spartan but efficient and the program offers control over report resolution. All input is free-format, and defaults are provided where this is meaningful. COCO uses SLALIB (ascl:1403.025) and is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
IUEDR reduces IUE data. It addresses the problem of working from the IUE Guest Observer tape or disk file through to a calibrated spectrum that can be used in scientific analysis and is a complete system for IUE data reduction. IUEDR was distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
The UKIRT IRCAM3 data reduction and analysis software package, IRCAMDR (formerly ircam_clred) analyzes and displays any 2D data image stored in the standard Starlink (ascl:1110.012) NDF data format. It reduces and analyzes IRCAM1/2 data images of 62x58 pixels and IRCAM3 images of 256x256 size. Most of the applications will work on NDF images of any physical (pixel) dimensions, for example, 1024x1024 CCD images can be processed.
IRAS90 is a suite of programs for processing IRAS data. It takes advantage of Starlink's (ascl:1110.012) ADAM environment, which provides multi-platform availability of both data and the programs to process it, and the user friendly interface of the parameter entry system. The suite can determine positions in astrometric coordinates, draw grids, and offers other functions for standard astronomical measurement and standard projections.
CGS4DR is data reduction software for the CGS4 instrument at UKIRT. The software can be used offline to reprocess CGS4 data. CGS4DR allows a wide variety of data reduction configurations, and can interlace oversampled data frames; reduce known bias, dark, flat, arc, object and sky frames; remove the sky, residual sky OH-lines (λ < 2.3 μm) and thermal emission (λ ≥ 2.3 μm) from data; and add data into groups for improved signal-to-noise. It can also extract and de-ripple a spectrum and offers a variety of ways to plot data, in addition to other useful features. CGS4DR is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
POLMAP provides routines for displaying and analyzing spectropolarimetry data that are not available in the complementary TSP package. Commands are provided to read and write TSP (ascl:1406.011) polarization spectrum format files from within POLMAP. This code is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
TSP is an astronomical data reduction package that handles time series data and polarimetric data from a variety of different instruments, and is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
MATCH matches up items in two different lists, which can have two different systems of coordinates. The program allows the two sets of coordinates to be related by a linear, quadratic, or cubic transformation. MATCH was designed and written to work on lists of stars and other astronomical objects but can be applied to other types of data. In order to match two lists of N points, the main algorithm calls for O(N^6) operations; though not the most efficient choice, it does allow for arbitrary translation, rotation, and scaling.
VADER is a flexible, general code that simulates the time evolution of thin axisymmetric accretion disks in time-steady potentials. VADER handles arbitrary viscosities, equations of state, boundary conditions, and source and sink terms for both mass and energy.
ASTROM performs "plate reductions" by taking user-provided star positions and the (x,y) coordinates of the corresponding star images and establishes the relationship between (x,y) and (ra,dec), thus enabling the coordinates of unknown stars to be determined. ASTROM is distributed with the Starlink software (ascl:1110.012) and uses SLALIB (ascl:1403.025).
The RV program produces a report listing the components, in a given direction, of the observer's velocity on a given date. This allows an observed radial velocity to be referred to an appropriate standard of rest -- typically either the Sun or an LSR.
As a secondary function, RV computes light time components to the Sun, thus allowing the times of phenomena observed from a terrestrial observatory to be referred to a heliocentric frame of reference. n.b. It will of course, in addition, be necessary to express the observations in the appropriate timescale as well as applying light time corrections. In particular, it is likely that an observed UTC will need to be converted to TDB as well as being corrected to the Sun.)
FROG performs time series analysis and display. It provides a simple user interface for astronomers wanting to do time-domain astrophysics but still offers the powerful features found in packages such as PERIOD (ascl:1406.005). FROG includes a number of tools for manipulation of time series. Among other things, the user can combine individual time series, detrend series (multiple methods) and perform basic arithmetic functions. The data can also be exported directly into the TOPCAT (ascl:1101.010) application for further manipulation if needed.
PERIOD searches for periodicities in data. It is distributed within the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
Autoastrom performs automated astrometric corrections on an astronomical image by automatically detecting objects in the frame, retrieving a reference catalogue, cross correlating the catalog with CCDPACK (ascl:1403.021) or MATCH, and using the ASTROM (ascl:1406.008) application to calculate a correction. It is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
CoREAS is a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of radio emission from extensive air showers; it is an update of and successor code to REAS3 (ascl:1107.009). It implements the endpoint formalism for the calculation of electromagnetic radiation directly in CORSIKA (ascl:1202.006). As such, it is parameter-free, makes no assumptions on the emission mechanism for the radio signals, and takes into account the complete complexity of the electron and positron distributions as simulated by CORSIKA.
PAMELA is an implementation of the optimal extraction algorithm for long-slit CCD spectroscopy and is well suited for time-series spectroscopy. It properly implements the optimal extraction algorithm for curved spectra, including on-the-fly cosmic ray rejection as well as proper calculation and propagation of the errors. The software is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.
ECHOMOP extracts spectra from 2-D data frames. These data can be single-order spectra or multi-order echelle spectra. A substantial degree of automation is provided, particularly in the traditionally manual functions for cosmic-ray detection and wavelength calibration; manual overrides are available. Features include robust and flexible order tracing, optimal extraction, support for variance arrays, and 2-D distortion fitting and extraction. ECHOMOP is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
ESP (Extended Surface Photometry) determines the photometric properties of galaxies and other extended objects. It has applications that detect flatfielding faults, remove cosmic rays, median filter images, determine image statistics and local background values, perform galaxy profiling, fit 2-D Gaussian profiles to galaxies, generate pie slice cross-sections of galaxies, and display profiling results. It is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
DIPSO plots spectroscopic data rapidly and combines analysis and high-quality graphical output in a simple command-line driven interactive environment. It can be used, for example, to fit emission lines, measure equivalent widths and fluxes, do Fourier analysis, and fit models to spectra. A macro facility allows convenient execution of regularly used sequences of commands, and a simple Fortran interface permits "personal" software to be integrated with the program. DIPSO is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
The CURSA package manipulates astronomical catalogs and similar tabular datasets. It provides facilities for browsing or examining catalogs; selecting subsets from a catalog; sorting and copying catalogs; pairing two catalogs; converting catalog coordinates between some celestial coordinate systems; and plotting finding charts and photometric calibration. It can also extract subsets from a catalog in a format suitable for plotting using other Starlink packages such as PONGO. CURSA can access catalogs held in the popular FITS table format, the Tab-Separated Table (TST) format or the Small Text List (STL) format. Catalogs in the STL and TST formats are simple ASCII text files. CURSA also includes some facilities for accessing remote on-line catalogs via the Internet. It is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
POLPACK maps the linear or circular polarization of extended astronomical objects, either in a single waveband, or in multiple wavebands (spectropolarimetry). Data from both single and dual beam polarimeters can be processed. It is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
PHOTOM performs photometry of digitized images. It has two basic modes of operation: using an interactive display to specify the positions for the measurements, or obtaining those positions from a file. In both modes of operation PHOTOM performs photometry using either the traditional aperture method or via optimal extraction. When using the traditional aperture extraction method the target aperture can be circular or elliptical and its size and shape can be varied interactively on the display, or by entering values from the keyboard. Both methods allow the background sky level to be either sampled interactively by the manual positioning of an aperture, or automatically from an annulus surrounding the target object. PHOTOM is the photometry backend for the GAIA tool (ascl:1403.024) and is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
PISA (Position, Intensity and Shape Analysis) routines deal with the location and parameterization of objects on an image frame. The core of this package is the routine PISAFIND which performs image analysis on a 2-dimensional data frame. The program searches the data array for objects that have a minimum number of connected pixels above a given threshold and extracts the image parameters (position, intensity, shape) for each object. The image parameters can be determined using thresholding techniques or an analytical stellar profile can be used to fit the objects. In crowded regions deblending of overlapping sources can be performed. PISA is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
DATACUBE is a command-line package for manipulating and visualizing data cubes. It was designed for integral field spectroscopy but has been extended to be a generic data cube tool, used in particular for sub-millimeter data cubes from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. It is part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
FLUXES calculates approximate topocentric positions of the planets and also integrated flux densities of five of them at several wavelengths. These provide calibration information at the effective frequencies and beam-sizes employed by the UKT14, SCUBA and SCUBA-2 receivers on the JCMT telescope based on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. FLUXES is part of the bundle that comprises the Starlink multi-purpose astronomy software package (ascl:1110.012).
ATV displays and analyses astronomical images using the IDL image-processing language. It allows interactive control of the image scaling, color table, color stretch, and zoom, with support for world coordinate systems. It also does point-and-click aperture photometry, simple spectral extractions, and can produce publication-quality postscript output images.
Written in IDL, TRIPP performs CCD time series reduction and analysis. It provides an on-line check of the incoming frames, performs relative aperture photometry and provides a set of time series tools, such as calculation of periodograms including false alarm probability determination, epoc folding, sinus fitting, and light curve simulations.
FORWARD forward models various coronal observables and can access and compare existing data. Given a coronal model, it can produce many different synthetic observables (including Stokes polarimetry), as well as plots of model plasma properties (density, magnetic field, etc.). It uses the CHIANTI database (ascl:9911.004) and CLE polarimetry synthesis code, works with numerical model datacubes, interfaces with the PFSS module of SolarSoft (ascl:1208.013), includes several analytic models, and connects to the Virtual Solar Observatory for downloading data in a format directly comparable to model predictions.
PROPER simulates the propagation of light through an optical system using Fourier transform algorithms (Fresnel, angular spectrum methods). Available in IDL, Python, and Matlab, it includes routines to create complex apertures, aberrated wavefronts, and deformable mirrors. It is especially useful for the simulation of high contrast imaging telescopes (extrasolar planet imagers like TPF).
HIIPHOT enables accurate photometric characterization of H II regions while permitting genuine adaptivity to irregular source morphology. It makes a first guess at the shapes of all sources through object recognition techniques; it then allows for departure from such idealized "seeds" through an iterative growing procedure and derives photometric corrections for spatially coincident diffuse emission from a low-order surface fit to the background after exclusion of all detected sources.
The IDL package Defringeflat identifies and removes fringe patterns from images such as spectrograph flat fields. It uses a wavelet transform to calculate the frequency spectrum in a region around each point of a one-dimensional array. The wavelet transform amplitude is reconstructed from (smoothed) parameters obtaining the fringe's wavelet transform, after which an inverse wavelet transform is performed to obtain the computed fringe pattern which is then removed from the flat.
The Hammer can classify spectra in a variety of formats with targets spanning the MK spectral sequence. It processes a list of input spectra by automatically estimating each object's spectral type and measuring activity and metallicity tracers in late type stars. Once automatic processing is complete, an interactive interface allows the user to manually tweak the final assigned spectral type through visual comparison with a set of templates.
TelFit calculates the best-fit telluric absorption spectrum in high-resolution optical and near-IR spectra. The best-fit model can then be divided out to remove the telluric contamination. Written in Python, TelFit is essentially a wrapper to LBLRTM, the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model, and simplifies the process of generating a telluric model.
LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model) is an accurate line-by-line model that is efficient and highly flexible. LBLRTM attributes provide spectral radiance calculations with accuracies consistent with the measurements against which they are validated and with computational times that greatly facilitate the application of the line-by-line approach to current radiative transfer applications. LBLRTM has been extensively validated against atmospheric radiance spectra from the ultra-violet to the sub-millimeter.
LBLRTM's heritage is in FASCODE [Clough et al., 1981, 1992].
Spextool (Spectral EXtraction tool) is an IDL-based data reduction package for SpeX, a medium resolution near-infrared spectrograph on the NASA IRTF. It performs all of the steps necessary to produce spectra ready for analysis and publication including non-linearity corrections, flat fielding, wavelength calibration, telluric correction, flux calibration, and order merging.
The AST library provides a comprehensive range of facilities for attaching world coordinate systems to astronomical data, for retrieving and interpreting that information in a variety of formats, including FITS-WCS, and for generating graphical output based on it. Core projection algorithms are provided by WCSLIB (ascl:1108.003) and astrometry is provided by the PAL (ascl:1606.002) and SOFA (ascl:1403.026) libraries. AST bindings are available in Python (pyast), Java (JNIAST) and Perl (Starlink::AST). AST is used as the plotting and astrometry library in DS9 and GAIA, and is distributed separately and as part of the Starlink software collection.
TTVFast efficiently calculates transit times for n-planet systems and the corresponding radial velocities. The code uses a symplectic integrator with a Keplerian interpolator for the calculation of transit times (Nesvorny et al. 2013); it is available in both C and Fortran.
SpecPro is an interactive program for viewing and analyzing spectra, particularly in the context of modern imaging surveys. In addition to displaying the 1D and 2D spectrum, SpecPro can simultaneously display available stamp images as well as the spectral energy distribution of a source. This extra information can help significantly in assessing a spectrum.
WFC3UV_GC is an improved geometric-distortion solution for the Hubble Space Telescope UVIS channel of Wide Field Camera 3 for ten broad-band filters. The solution is made up of three parts:
1.) a 3rd-order polynomial to deal with the general optical distortion;
2.) a table of residuals that accounts for both chip-related anomalies and fine-structure introduced by the filter; and,
3.) a linear transformation to put the two chips into a convenient master frame.
RegPT computes the power spectrum in flat wCDM class models based on the RegPT treatment when provided with either of transfer function or matter power spectrum. It then gives the multiple-redshift outputs for power spectrum, and optionally provides correlation function data. The Fortran code has two major options for power spectrum calculations; -fast, which quickly computes the power spectrum at two-loop level (typically a few seconds) using the pre-computed data set of PT kernels for fiducial cosmological models, and -direct, in which the code first applies the fast method, and then follows the regularized expression for power spectrum to directly evaluate the multi-dimensional integrals. The output results are the power spectrum of direct calculation and difference of the results between fast and direct method. The code also gives the data set of PT diagrams necessary for power spectrum calculations from which the power spectrum can be constructed.
CAP_LOESS_1D and CAP_LOESS_2D provide improved implementations of the one-dimensional (Clevelend 1979) and two-dimensional (Cleveland & Devlin 1988) Locally Weighted Regression (LOESS) methods to recover the mean trends of the population from noisy data in one or two dimensions. They include a robust approach to deal with outliers (bad data). The software is available in both IDL and Python versions.
The Victoria–Regina stellar models are comprised of seventy-two grids of stellar evolutionary tracks accompanied by complementary zero-age horizontal branches and are presented in “equivalent evolutionary phase” (.eep) files. This Fortran 77 software interpolates isochrones, isochrone population functions, luminosity functions, and color functions of stellar evolutionary tracks.
carma_pack is an MCMC sampler for performing Bayesian inference on continuous time autoregressive moving average models. These models may be used to model time series with irregular sampling. The MCMC sampler utilizes an adaptive Metropolis algorithm combined with parallel tempering.
Comet is a Python implementation of the VOEvent Transport Protocol (VTP). VOEvent is the IVOA system for describing transient celestial events. Details of transients detected by many projects, including Fermi, Swift, and the Catalina Sky Survey, are currently made available as VOEvents, which is also the standard alert format by future facilities such as LSST and SKA. The core of Comet is a multifunction VOEvent broker, capable of receiving events either by subscribing to one or more remote brokers or by direct connection from authors; it can then both process those events locally and forward them to its own subscribers. In addition, Comet provides a tool for publishing VOEvents to the global VOEvent backbone.
AMBIG is a fast, automated algorithm for resolving the 180° ambiguity in vector magnetic field data, including those data from Hinode/Spectropolarimeter. The Fortran-based code is loosely based on the Minimum Energy Algorithm, and is distributed to provide ambiguity-resolved data for the general user community.
TORUS is a flexible radiation transfer and radiation-hydrodynamics code. The code has a basic infrastructure that includes the AMR mesh scheme that is used by several physics modules including atomic line transfer in a moving medium, molecular line transfer, photoionization, radiation hydrodynamics and radiative equilibrium. TORUS is useful for a variety of problems, including magnetospheric accretion onto T Tauri stars, spiral nebulae around Wolf-Rayet stars, discs around Herbig AeBe stars, structured winds of O supergiants and Raman-scattered line formation in symbiotic binaries, and dust emission and molecular line formation in star forming clusters. The code is written in Fortran 2003 and is compiled using a standard Gnu makefile. The code is parallelized using both MPI and OMP, and can use these parallel sections either separately or in a hybrid mode.
Subpixel Event Repositioning (SER) techniques significantly improve the already unprecedented spatial resolution of Chandra X-ray imaging with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS). Chandra CCD SER techniques are based on the premise that the impact position of events can be refined, based on the distribution of charge among affected CCD pixels. Unlike ACIS SER models that are restricted to corner split (3- and 4-pixel) events and assume that such events take place at the split pixel corners, this IDL code uses two-pixel splits as well, and incorporates more realistic estimates of photon impact positions.
The Science Analysis System (SAS) is an extensive suite of software tasks developed to process the data collected by the XMM-Newton Observatory. The SAS extracts standard (spectra, light curves) and/or customized science products, and allows reproductions of the reduction pipelines run to get the PPS products from the ODFs files. SAS includes a powerful and extensive suite of FITS file manipulation packages based on the Data Access Layer library.
The cross-correlation function (CCF) is commonly employed in the study of AGN, where it is used to probe the structure of the broad line region by line reverberation, to study the continuum emission mechanism by correlating multi-waveband light curves and to seek correlations between the variability and other AGN properties. The z -transformed discrete correlation function (ZDCF) is a method for estimating the CCF of sparse, unevenly sampled light curves. Unlike the commonly used interpolation method, it does not assume that the light curves are smooth and it does provide errors on its estimates.
LTS_LINEFIT and LTS_PLANEFIT are IDL programs to robustly fit lines and planes to data with intrinsic scatter. The code combines the Least Trimmed Squares (LTS) robust technique, proposed by Rousseeuw (1984) and optimized in Rousseeuw & Driessen (2006), into a least-squares fitting algorithm which allows for intrinsic scatter. This method makes the fit converge to the correct solution even in the presence of a large number of catastrophic outliers, where the much simpler σ-clipping approach can converge to the wrong solution.
SOFA (Standards Of Fundamental Astronomy) is a collection of subprograms, in source-code form, that implement official IAU algorithms for fundamental astronomy computations. SOFA offers more than 160 routines for fundamental astronomy, including time scales (including dealing with leap seconds), Earth rotation, sidereal time, precession, nutation, polar motion, astrometry and transforms between various reference systems (e.g. BCRS, ICRS, GCRS, CIRS, TIRS, ITRS). The subprograms are supported by 55 vector/matrix routines, and are available in both Fortran77 and C implementations.
SLALIB is a library of routines that make accurate and reliable positional-astronomy applications easier to write. Most SLALIB routines are concerned with astronomical position and time, but a number have wider trigonometrical, numerical or general applications. A Fortran implementation of SLALIB under GPL licensing is available as part of Starlink (ascl:1110.012).
GAIA is an image and data-cube display and analysis tool for astronomy. It provides the usual facilities of image display tools, plus more astronomically useful ones such as aperture and optimal photometry, contouring, source detection, surface photometry, arbitrary region analysis, celestial coordinate readout, calibration and modification, grid overlays, blink comparison, defect patching and the ability to query on-line catalogues and image servers. It can also display slices from data-cubes, extract and visualize spectra as well as perform full 3D rendering. GAIA uses the Starlink software environment (ascl:1110.012) and is derived from the ESO SkyCat tool (ascl:1109.019).
KAPPA comprising about 180 general-purpose commands for image processing, data visualization, and manipulation of the standard Starlink data format--the NDF. It works with Starlink's various specialized packages; in addition to the NDF, KAPPA can also process data in other formats by using the "on-the-fly" conversion scheme. Many commands can process data arrays of arbitrary dimension, and others work on both spectra and images. KAPPA operates from both the UNIX C-shell and the ICL command language. KAPPA uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).
CCDPACK contains programs to debias, remove dark current, flatfield, register, resample and normalize data from single- or multiple-CCD instruments. The basic reduction stages can be set up using an X based GUI that controls an automated reduction system so one can to start working without any detailed knowledge of the package (or indeed of CCD reduction). Registration is performed using graphical, script based or automated techniques that keep the amount of work to a minimum. CCDPACK uses the Starlink environment (ascl:1110.012).
Disc2vel derives tangential and radial velocity components in the equatorial plane of a barred stellar disc from the observed line-of-sight velocity, assuming geometry of a thin disc. The code is written in IDL, and the method assumes that the bar is close to steady state (i.e. does not evolve fast) and that both morphology and kinematics are symmetrical with respect to the major axis of the bar.
KINEMETRY, written in IDL, analyzes 2D maps of the moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD). It generalizes the surface photometry to all moments of the LOSVD. It performs harmonic expansion of 2D maps of observed moments (surface brightness, velocity, velocity dispersion, h3, h4, etc.) along the best fitting ellipses (either fixed or free to change along the radii) to robustly quantify maps of the LOSVD moments, describe trends in structures, and detect morphological and kinematic sub-components.
The Jeans Anisotropic MGE (JAM) modeling method uses the Multi-Gaussian Expansion parameterization for the galaxy surface brightness. The code allows for orbital anisotropy (three-integrals distribution function) and also provides the full second moment tensor, including proper motions and radial velocities.
MGE_FIT_SECTORS performs Multi-Gaussian Expansion (MGE) fits to galaxy images. The MGE parameterizations are useful in the construction of realistic dynamical models of galaxies, PSF deconvolution of images, the correction and estimation of dust absorption effects, and galaxy photometry. The algorithm is well suited for use with multiple-resolution images (e.g. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based images).
Viewpoints is an interactive tool for exploratory visual analysis of large high-dimensional (multivariate) data. It uses linked scatterplots to find relations in a few seconds that can take much longer with other plotting tools. Its features include linked scatter plots with brushing, dynamic histograms, normalization, and outlier detection/removal.
ComputePk computes the power spectrum in cosmological simulations. It is MPI parallel and has been tested up to a 4096^3 mesh. It uses the FFTW library. It can read Gadget-3 and GOTPM outputs, and computes the dark matter component. The user may choose between NGP, CIC, and TSC for the mass assignment scheme.
This IDL code returns the dust temperature of a galaxy from its redshift, SFR and stellar mass; it can also predict the observed monochromatic fluxes of the galaxy. These monochromatic fluxes correspond to those of a DH SED template with the appropriate dust temperature and the appropriate normalization. Dust temperatures and fluxes predictions are only valid and provided in the redshift, stellar mass, SSFR and wavelength ranges 0 < z < 2.5, Mstar> 10^10 Msun, 10^-11 < SSFR[yr-1]< 10^-7 and 30um < lambda_rest < 2mm.
BAOlab is an image processing package written in C that should run on nearly any UNIX system with just the standard C libraries. It reads and writes images in standard FITS format; 16- and 32-bit integer as well as 32-bit floating-point formats are supported. Multi-extension FITS files are currently not supported. Among its tools are ishape for size measurements of compact sources, mksynth for generating synthetic images consisting of a background signal including Poisson noise and a number of pointlike sources, imconvol for convolving two images (a “source” and a “kernel”) with each other using fast fourier transforms (FFTs) and storing the output as a new image, and kfit2d for fitting a two-dimensional King model to an image.
YNOGKM (Yun-Nan observatories geodesic in a Kerr-Newman spacetime for massive particles) performs fast calculation of time-like geodesics in the Kerr-Newman (K-N) spacetime; it is a direct extension of YNOGK (Yun-Nan observatories geodesic Kerr) calculating null geodesics in a Kerr spacetime. The four Boyer-Lindquis coordinates and proper time are expressed as functions of a parameter p semi-analytically by using the Weierstrass' and Jacobi's elliptic functions and integrals. The elliptic integrals are computed by Carlson's elliptic integral method, which guarantees the fast speed of the code. The source Fortran file ynogkm.f90 contains three modules: constants, rootfind, ellfunction, and blcoordinates.
RMHB is a hierarchical Bayesian code for reverberation mapping (RM) that combines results of a sparsely sampled broad line region (BLR) light curve and a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) to infer properties of the sample of the AGN. The key idea of RM is to measure the time lag τ between variations in the continuum emission from the accretion disc and subsequent response of the broad line region (BLR). The measurement of τ is typically used to estimate the physical size of the BLR and is combined with other measurements to estimate the black hole mass MBH. A major difficulty with RM campaigns is the large amount of data needed to measure τ. RMHB allows a clear interpretation of a posterior distribution for hyperparameters describing the sample of AGN.
The Beta Inverse code solves the inverse cumulative density function (CDF) of a Beta distribution, allowing one to sample from the Beta prior directly. The Beta distribution is well suited as a prior for the distribution of the orbital eccentricities of extrasolar planets; imposing a Beta prior on orbital eccentricity is valuable for any type of observation of an exoplanet where eccentricity can affect the model parameters (e.g. transits, radial velocities, microlensing, direct imaging). The Beta prior is an excellent description of the current, empirically determined distribution of orbital eccentricities and thus employing it naturally incorporates an observer’s prior experience of what types of orbits are probable or improbable. The default parameters in the code are currently set to the Beta distribution which best describes the entire population of exoplanets with well-constrained orbits.
ISAP, written in IDL, simplifies the process of visualizing, subsetting, shifting, rebinning, masking, combining scans with weighted means or medians, filtering, and smoothing Auto Analysis Results (AARs) from post-pipeline processing of the Infrared Space Observatory's (ISO) Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) data. It can also be applied to PHOT-S and CAM-CVF data, and data from practically any spectrometer. The result of a typical ISAP session is expected to be a "simple spectrum" (single-valued spectrum which may be resampled to a uniform wavelength separation if desired) that can be further analyzed and measured either with other ISAP functions, native IDL functions, or exported to other analysis package (e.g., IRAF, MIDAS) if desired. ISAP provides many tools for further analysis, line-fitting, and continuum measurements, such as routines for unit conversions, conversions from wavelength space to frequency space, line and continuum fitting, flux measurement, synthetic photometry and models such as a zodiacal light model to predict and subtract the dominant foreground at some wavelengths.
The equation of state (EOS) of dense matter is a crucial input for the neutron-star structure calculations. This Fortran code can obtain a "unified EOS" in the many-body calculations based on a single effective nuclear Hamiltonian, and is valid in all regions of the neutron star interior. For unified EOSs, the transitions between the outer crust and the inner crust and between the inner crust and the core are obtained as a result of many-body calculations.
CHIMERA simulates core collapse supernovas; it is three-dimensional and accounts for the differing energies of neutrinos. This massively parallel multiphysics code conserves total energy (gravitational, internal, kinetic, and neutrino) to within 0.5 B, given a conservative gravitational potential. CHIMERA has three main components: a hydro component, a neutrino transport component, and a nuclear reaction network component. It also includes a Poisson solver for the gravitational potential and a sophisticated equation of state.
GRay is a massive parallel ordinary differential equation integrator that employs the "stream processing paradigm." It is designed to efficiently integrate billions of photons in curved spacetime according to Einstein's general theory of relativity. The code is implemented in CUDA C/C++.
Lightcone works with simulated galaxy data stored in a relational database to rearrange the data in a shape of a light-cone; simulated galaxy data is expected to be in a box volume. The light-cone constructing script works with output from the SAGE semi-analytic model (ascl:1601.006), but will work with any other model that has galaxy positions (and other properties) saved per snapshots of the simulation volume distributed in time. The database configuration file is set up for PostgreSQL RDBMS, but can be modified for use with any other SQL database.
The parallel Python framework MLZ (Machine Learning and photo-Z) computes fast and robust photometric redshift PDFs using Machine Learning algorithms. It uses a supervised technique with prediction trees and random forest through TPZ that can be used for a regression or a classification problem, or a unsupervised methods with self organizing maps and random atlas called SOMz. These machine learning implementations can be efficiently combined into a more powerful one resulting in robust and accurate probability distributions for photometric redshifts.
The Python script/package pyExtinction computes and plots total atmospheric extinction from decomposition into physical components (Rayleigh attenuation, ozone absorption, aerosol extinction). Its default extinction parameters are adapted to mean Mauna Kea summit conditions.
GPU-D is a GPU-accelerated implementation of the inverse ray-shooting technique used to generate cosmological microlensing magnification maps. These maps approximate the source plane magnification patterns created by an ensemble of stellar-mass compact objects within a foreground macrolens galaxy. Unlike other implementations, GPU-D solves the gravitational lens equation without any approximation. Due to the high computational intensity and high degree of parallelization inherent in the algorithm, it is ideal for brute-force implementation on GPUs. GPU-D uses CUDA for GPU acceleration and require NVIDIA devices to run.
MGHalofit is a modified gravity extension of the fitting formula for the matter power spectrum of HALOFIT and its improvement by Takahashi et al. MGHalofit is implemented in MGCAMB, which is based on CAMB. MGHalofit calculates the nonlinear matter power spectrum P(k) for the Hu-Sawicki model. Comparing MGHalofit predictions at various redshifts (z<=1) to the f(R) simulations, the accuracy on P(k) is 6% at k<1 h/Mpc and 12% at 1<k<10 h/Mpc respectively.
PyWiFeS is a Python-based data reduction pipeline for the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS). Its core data processing routines are built on standard scientific Python packages commonly used in astronomical applications. It includes an implementation of a global optical model of the spectrograph which provides wavelengths solutions accurate to ˜0.05 Å (RMS) across the entire detector. Through scripting, PyWiFeS can enable batch processing of large quantities of data.
Libsharp is a collection of algorithms for efficient conversion between maps on the sphere and their spherical harmonic coefficients. It supports a wide range of pixelisations (including HEALPix, GLESP, and ECP). This library is a successor of libpsht (ascl:1010.020); it adds MPI support for distributed memory systems and SHTs of fields with arbitrary spin, and also supports new developments in CPU instruction sets like the Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) or fused multiply-accumulate (FMA) instructions. libsharp is written in portable C99; it provides an interface accessible to other programming languages such as C++, Fortran, and Python.
HALOFIT provides an explanatory framework for galaxy bias and clustering and has been incorporated into CMB packages such as CMBFAST (ascl:9909.004) and CAMB (ascl:1102.026). It attains a reasonable level of precision, though the halo model does not match N-body data perfectly. The code is written in Fortran 77. HALOFIT tends to underpredict the power on the smallest scales in standard LCDM universes (although HALOFIT was designed to work for a much wider range of power spectra); its accuracy can be improved by using a supplied correction.
gyrfalcON (GalaxY simulatoR using falcON) is a full-fledged N-body code using Dehnen’s force algorithm of complexity O(N) (falcON); this algorithm is approximately 10 times faster than an optimally coded tree code. The code features individual adaptive time steps and individual (but fixed) softening lengths. gyrfalcON is included in and requires NEMO to run.
P2SAD computes the Particle Phase Space Average Density (P2SAD) in galactic haloes. The model for the calculation is based on the stable clustering hypothesis in phase space, the spherical collapse model, and tidal disruption of substructures. The multiscale prediction for P2SAD computed by this IDL code can be used to estimate signals sensitive to the small scale structure of dark matter distributions (e.g. dark matter annihilation). The code computes P2SAD averaged over the whole virialized region of a Milky-Way-size halo at redshift zero.
wssa_utils contains utilities for accessing the full-sky, high-resolution maps of the WSSA 12 micron data release. Implementations in both Python and IDL are included. The code allows users to sample values at (longitude, latitude) coordinates of interest with ease, transparently mapping coordinates to WSSA tiles and performing interpolation. The wssa_utils software also serves to define a unique WSSA 12 micron flux at every location on the sky.
Commander 2 is a Gibbs sampling code for joint CMB estimation and component separation. The Commander framework uses a parametrized physical model of the sky to perform statistically-rigorous analyses of multi-frequency, multi-resolution CMB data on the full and partial (flat) sky, as well as cross-correlation analyses with large-scale structure datasets.
Darth Fader is a wavelet-based method for extracting spectral features from very noisy spectra. Spectra for which a reliable redshift cannot be measured are identified and removed from the input data set automatically, resulting in a clean catalogue that gives an extremely low rate of catastrophic failures even when the spectra have a very low S/N. This technique may offer a significant boost in the number of faint galaxies with accurately determined redshifts.
athena is a 2d-tree code that estimates second-order correlation functions from input galaxy catalogues. These include shear-shear correlations (cosmic shear), position-shear (galaxy-galaxy lensing) and position-position (spatial angular correlation). Written in C, it includes a power-spectrum estimator implemented in Python; this script also calculates the aperture-mass dispersion. A test data set is available.
Using the 2-point correlation function, BAOlab aids the study of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The code generates a model-dependent covariance matrix which can change the results both for BAO detection and for parameter constraints.
QuickReduce quickly reduces data for ODI and is optimized for a first data inspection during acquisition at the the telescope. When installed on the ODI observer's interface, QuickReduce, coded in Python, performs all basic reduction steps as well as more advanced corrections for pupil-ghost removal, fringe correction and masking of persistent pixels and is capable enough for science-quality data reductions. It can also add an accurate astrometric WCS solution based on the 2MASS reference system as well as photometric zeropoint calibration for frames covered by the SDSS foot-print. The pipeline makes use of multiple CPU-cores wherever possible, resulting in an execution time of only a few seconds per frame, thus offering the ODI observer a convenient way to closely monitor data quality.
HydraLens generates gravitational lens model files for Lenstool, PixeLens, glafic and Lensmodel and can also translate lens model files among these four lens model codes. Through a GUI, the user enters a new model by specifying the type of model and is then led through screens to collect the data. Written in MS Visual Basic, the code can also translate an existing model from any of the four supported codes to any of the other three.
Vissage (VISualisation Software for Astronomical Gigantic data cubEs) is a FITS browser primarily targeting FITS data cubes obtained from ALMA. Vissage offers basic functionality for viewing three-dimensional data cubes, integrated intensity map, flipbook, channel map, and P-V diagram. It has several color sets and color scales available, offers panning and zooming, and can connect with the ALMA WebQL system and the JVO Subaru Image Cutout Service.
Glue, written in Python, links visualizations of scientific datasets across many files, allowing for interactive, linked statistical graphics of multiple files. It supports many file formats including common image formats (jpg, tiff, png), ASCII tables, astronomical image and table formats (FITS, VOT, IPAC), and HDF5. Custom data loaders can also be easily added. Glue is highly scriptable and extendable.
Astropoltlib is a multi-language astronomical library of plots, a collection of templates useful for creating paper-quality figures. Most of the codes for producing the plots are written in IDL and/or Python; a very few are written in Mathematica. Any plot can be downloaded and customized to one's own needs.
PyVO provides access to remote data and services of the Virtual observatory (VO) using Python. It allows archive searches for data of a particular type or related to a particular topic and query submissions to obtain data to a particular archive to download selected data products. PyVO supports querying the VAO registry; simple data access services (DAL) to access images (SIA), source catalog records (Cone Search), spectra (SSA), and spectral line emission/absorption data (SLAP); and object name resolution (for converting names of objects in the sky into positions). PyVO requires both AstroPy and NumPy.
Aladin Lite is a lightweight version of the Aladin tool, running in the browser and geared towards simple visualization of a sky region. It allows visualization of image surveys (JPEG multi-resolution HEALPix all-sky surveys) and permits superimposing tabular (VOTable) and footprints (STC-S) data. Aladin Lite is powered by HTML5 canvas technology and is easily embeddable on any web page and can also be controlled through a Javacript API.
Munipack provides easy-to-use tools for all astronomical astrometry and photometry, access to Virtual Observatory as well as FITS files operations and a simple user interface along with a powerful processing engine. Its many features include a FITS images viewer that allows for basic (astronomical) operations with frames, advanced image processor supporting an infinite dynamic range and advanced color management, and astrometric calibration of images. The astrometry module uses robust statistical estimators and algorithms. The photometry module provides the classical method detection of stars and implements the aperture photometry, calibrated on the basis of photon statistics, and allows for the automatic detection and aperture photometry of stars; calibration on absolute fluxes is possible. The software also provides a standard way to correct for all the bias, dark and flat-field frames, and many other features.
SPLAT is a graphical tool for displaying, comparing, modifying and analyzing astronomical spectra stored in NDF, FITS and TEXT files as well as in NDX format. It can read in many spectra at the same time and then display these as line plots. Display windows can show one or several spectra at the same time and can be interactively zoomed and scrolled, centered on specific wavelengths, provide continuous coordinate readout, produce printable hardcopy and be configured in many ways. Analysis facilities include the fitting of a polynomial to selected parts of a spectrum, the fitting of Gaussian, Lorentzian and Voigt profiles to emission and absorption lines and the filtering of spectra using average, median and line-shape window functions as well as wavelet denoising. SPLAT also supports a full range of coordinate systems for spectra, which allows coordinates to be displayed and aligned in many different coordinate systems (wavelength, frequency, energy, velocity) and transformed between these and different standards of rest (topocentric, heliocentric, dynamic and kinematic local standards of rest, etc). SPLAT is distributed as part of the Starlink (ascl:1110.012) software collection.
SPLAT-VO is an extension of the SPLAT (Spectral Analysis Tool, ascl:1402.007) graphical tool for displaying, comparing, modifying and analyzing astronomical spectra; it includes facilities that allow it to work as part of the Virtual Observatory (VO). SPLAT-VO comes in two different forms, one for querying and downloading spectra from SSAP servers and one for interoperating with VO tools, such as TOPCAT (ascl:1101.010).
GalSim is a fast, modular software package for simulation of astronomical images. Though its primary purpose is for tests of weak lensing analysis methods, it can be used for other purposes. GalSim allows galaxies and PSFs to be represented in a variety of ways, and can apply shear, magnification, dilation, or rotation to a galaxy profile including lensing-based models from a power spectrum or NFW halo profile. It can write images in regular FITS files, FITS data cubes, or multi-extension FITS files. It can also compress the output files using various compressions including gzip, bzip2, and rice. The user interface is in python or via configuration scripts, and the computations are done in C++ for speed.
The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules using programs such as EsoRex (ascl:1504.003).
KROME, given a chemical network (in CSV format), automatically generates all the routines needed to solve the kinetics of the system modeled as a system of coupled Ordinary Differential Equations. It provides a large set of physical processes connected to chemistry, including photochemistry, cooling, heating, dust treatment, and reverse kinetics. KROME is flexible and can be used for a wide range of astrophysical simulations. The package contains a network for primordial chemistry, a small metal network appropriate for the modeling of low metallicities environments, a detailed network for the modeling of molecular clouds, and a network for planetary atmospheres as well as a framework for the modelling of the dust grain population.
QUICKCV is an IDL sample variance/cosmic variance calculator for some geometry for galaxies in given stellar mass bins as a function of mean redshift and redshift bin size.
CASSIS (Centre d'Analyse Scientifique de Spectres Infrarouges et Submillimetriques), written in Java, is suited for broad-band spectral surveys to speed up the scientific analysis of high spectral resolution observations. It uses a local spectroscopic database made of the two molecular spectroscopic databases JPL and CDMS, as well as the atomic spectroscopic database NIST. Its tools include a LTE model and the RADEX model connected to the LAMDA molecular collisional database. CASSIS can build a line list fitting the various transitions of a given species and to directly produce rotational diagrams from these lists. CASSIS is fully integrated into HIPE, the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment, as a plug-in.
ARTIST is a suite of tools for comprehensive multi-dimensional radiative transfer calculations of dust and line emission, as well as their polarization, to help interpret observations from submillimeter telescopes. The ARTIST package consists of LIME, a radiative transfer code that uses adaptive gridding allowing simulations of sources with arbitrary multi-dimensional (1D, 2D, 3D) and time-dependent structures, thus ensuring rapid convergence; the DustPol and LinePol tools for modeling the polarization of the line and dust emission; and an interface run from Python scripts that manages the interaction between a general model library and LIME, and a graphical interface to simulate images.
The "busy function" accurately describes the characteristic double-horn HI profile of many galaxies. Implemented in a C/C++ library and Python module called BF_dist, it is a continuous, differentiable function that consists of only two basic functions, the error function, erf(x), and a polynomial, |x|^n, of degree n >= 2. BF_dist offers great flexibility in fitting a wide range of HI profiles from the Gaussian profiles of dwarf galaxies to the broad, asymmetric double-horn profiles of spiral galaxies, and can be used to parametrize observed HI spectra of galaxies and the construction of spectral templates for simulations and matched filtering algorithms accurately and efficiently.
FAMA (Fast Automatic MOOG Analysis), written in Perl, computes the atmospheric parameters and abundances of a large number of stars using measurements of equivalent widths (EWs) automatically and independently of any subjective approach. Based on the widely-used MOOG code, it simultaneously searches for three equilibria, excitation equilibrium, ionization balance, and the relationship between logn(FeI) and the reduced EWs. FAMA also evaluates the statistical errors on individual element abundances and errors due to the uncertainties in the stellar parameters. Convergence criteria are not fixed "a priori" but instead are based on the quality of the spectra.
UVMULTIFIT, written in Python, is a versatile library for fitting models directly to visibility data. These models can depend on frequency and fitting parameters in an arbitrary algebraic way. The results from the fit to the visibilities of sources with sizes smaller than the diffraction limit of the interferometer are superior to the output obtained from a mere analysis of the deconvolved images. Though UVMULTIFIT is based on the CASA package, it can be easily adapted to other analysis packages that have a Python API.
TARDIS creates synthetic spectra for supernova ejecta and is sufficiently fast to allow exploration of the complex parameter spaces of models for SN ejecta. TARDIS uses Monte Carlo methods to obtain a self-consistent description of the plasma state and to compute a synthetic spectrum. It is written in Python with a modular design that facilitates the implementation of a range of physical approximations that can be compared to assess both accuracy and computational expediency; this allows users to choose a level of sophistication appropriate for their application.
ANAigm offers an updated version of the Madau model for the attenuation by the intergalactic neutral hydrogen against the radiation from distant objects. This new model is written in Fortran90 and predicts, for some redshifts, more than 0.5--1 mag different attenuation magnitudes through usual broad-band filters relative to the original Madau model.
XNS solves for the axisymmetric equilibrium configuration of neutron stars in general relativity. It can model differentially rotating and magnetic fields that are either purely toroidal, purely poloidal or in the mixed twisted torus configuration. Einsten's equations are solved using the XCFC approximation for the metric in spherical coordinates.
PyGFit measures PSF-matched photometry from images with disparate pixel scales and PSF sizes; its primary purpose is to extract robust spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from crowded images. It fits blended sources in crowded, low resolution images with models generated from a higher resolution image, thus minimizing the impact of crowding and also yielding consistently measured fluxes in different filters which minimizes systematic uncertainty in the final SEDs.
DexM (Deus ex Machina) efficiently generates density, halo, and ionization fields on very large scales and with a large dynamic range through seminumeric simulation. These properties are essential for reionization studies, especially those involving rare, massive QSOs, since one must be able to statistically capture the ionization field. DexM can also generate ionization fields directly from the evolved density field to account for the ionizing contribution of small halos. Semi-numerical simulations use more approximate physics than numerical simulations, but independently generate 3D cosmological realizations. DexM is portable and fast, and allows for explorations of wide swaths of astrophysical parameter space and an unprecedented dynamic range.
The use of graphics processing units offers an attractive alternative to specialized hardware, like GRAPE. The Kirin library mimics the behavior of the GRAPE hardware and uses the GPU to execute the force calculations. It is compatible with the GRAPE6 library; existing code that uses the GRAPE6 library can be recompiled and relinked to use the GPU equivalents of the GRAPE6 functions. All functions in the GRAPE6 library have an equivalent GPU implementation. Kirin can be used for direct N-body simulations as well as for treecodes; it can be run with shared-time steps or with block time-steps and allows non-softened potentials. As Kirin makes use of CUDA, it works only on NVIDIA GPUs.
SpacePy provides data analysis and visualization tools for the space science community. Written in Python, it builds on the capabilities of the NumPy and MatPlotLib packages to make basic data analysis, modeling and visualization easier. It contains modules for handling many complex time formats, obtaining data from the OMNI database, and accessing the powerful Onera library. It contains a library of commonly used empirical relationships, performs association analysis, coordinate transformations, radiation belt modeling, and CDF reading, and creates publication quality plots.
PyMidas is an interface between Python and MIDAS, the major ESO legacy general purpose data processing system. PyMidas allows a user to exploit both the rich legacy of MIDAS software and the power of Python scripting in a unified interactive environment. PyMidas also allows the usage of other Python-based astronomical analysis systems such as PyRAF.
Reflex provides an easy and flexible way to reduce VLT/VLTI science data using the ESO pipelines. It allows graphically specifying the sequence in which the data reduction steps are executed, including conditional stops, loops and conditional branches. It eases inspection of the intermediate and final data products and allows repetition of selected processing steps to optimize the data reduction. The data organization necessary to reduce the data is built into the system and is fully automatic; advanced users can plug their own modules and steps into the data reduction sequence. Reflex supports the development of data reduction workflows based on the ESO Common Pipeline Library. Reflex is based on the concept of a scientific workflow, whereby the data reduction cascade is rendered graphically and data seamlessly flow from one processing step to the next. It is distributed with a number of complete test datasets so users can immediately start experimenting and familiarize themselves with the system.
PyDrizzle provides a semi-automated interface for computing the parameters necessary for running Drizzle. PyDrizzle performs the task of determining the parameters necessary for aligning images based on the WCS information in the input image headers, as well as any supplemental alignment information provided in shift files, and combines the images onto the same WCS. Though it does not identify cosmic rays, it has the ability to ignore pixels flagged as bad, such as pixels identified by other programs as affected by cosmic rays.
The IDL package convolve_image.pro transforms images between different instrumental point spread functions (PSFs). It can load an image file and corresponding kernel and return the convolved image, thus preserving the colors of the astronomical sources. Convolution kernels are available for images from Spitzer (IRAC MIPS), Herschel (PACS SPIRE), GALEX (FUV NUV), WISE (W1 - W4), Optical PSFs (multi- Gaussian and Moffat functions), and Gaussian PSFs; they allow the study of the Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of extended objects and preserve the characteristic SED in each pixel.
abundance, written in Fortran, provides driver and fitting routines to compute the predicted number of clusters in a ΛCDM cosmology that agrees with CMB, SN, BAO, and H0 measurements (up to 2010) at some specified parameter confidence and the mass that would rule out that cosmology at some specified sample confidence. It also computes the expected number of such clusters in the light cone and the Eddington bias factor that must be applied to observed masses.
massconvert, written in Fortran, provides driver and fitting routines for converting halo mass definitions from one spherical overdensity to another assuming an NFW density profile. In surveys that probe ever lower cluster masses and temperatures, sample variance is generally comparable to or greater than shot noise and thus cannot be neglected in deriving precision cosmological constraints; massconvert offers an accurate fitting formula for the conversion between different definitions of halo mass.
The main CAMB code supports smooth dark energy models with constant equation of state and sound speed of one, or a quintessence model based on a potential. This modified code generalizes it to support a time-dependent equation of state w(a) that is allowed to cross the phantom divide, i.e. w=-1 multiple times by implementing a Parameterized Post-Friedmann(PPF) prescription for the dark energy perturbations.
SunPy is a community-developed free and open-source software package for solar physics and is an alternative to the SolarSoft data analysis environment. SunPy provides data structures for representing the most common solar data types (images, lightcurves, and spectra) and integration with the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) and the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) for data acquisition.
SERPent is an automated reduction and RFI-mitigation procedure that uses the SumThreshold methodology. It was originally developed for the LOFAR pipeline. SERPent is written in Parseltongue, enabling interaction with the Astronomical Image Processing Software (AIPS) program. Moreover, SERPent is a simple "out of the box" Python script, which is easy to set up and is free of compilers.
WND-CHARM quantitatively analyzes morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. It computes a large set (up to ~2700) of image features for each image based on the WND-CHARM algorithm. It can then split the images into training and test sets and classify them. The software extracts the image content descriptor from raw images, image transforms, and compound image transforms. The most informative features are then selected, and the feature vector of each image is used for classification and similarity measurement using Fisher discriminant scores and a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis. WND-CHARM's results comparable favorably to the performance of task-specific algorithms developed for tested datasets. The simple user interface allows researchers who are not knowledgeable in computer vision methods and have no background in computer programming to apply image analysis to their data.
IMCOM allows for careful treatment of aliasing in undersampled imaging data and can be used to test the feasibility of multi-exposure observing strategies for space-based survey missions. IMCOM can also been used to explore focal plane undersampling for an optical space mission such as Euclid.
The Bayesian Inference Engine (BIE) is an object-oriented library of tools written in C++ designed explicitly to enable Bayesian update and model comparison for astronomical problems. To facilitate "what if" exploration, BIE provides a command line interface (written with Bison and Flex) to run input scripts. The output of the code is a simulation of the Bayesian posterior distribution from which summary statistics e.g. by taking moments, or determine confidence intervals and so forth, can be determined. All of these quantities are fundamentally integrals and the Markov Chain approach produces variates $ heta$ distributed according to $P( heta|D)$ so moments are trivially obtained by summing of the ensemble of variates.
XAssist provides automation of X-ray astrophysics, specifically data reprocessing, source detection, and preliminary spatial, temporal and spectral analysis for each source with sufficient counts, with an emphasis on galaxies. It has been used for data from Chandra, ROSAT, XMM-Newton, and other various projects.
LTL provides dynamic arrays of up to 7-dimensions, subarrays and slicing, support for fixed-size vectors and matrices including basic linear algebra operations, expression templates-based evaluation, and I/O facilities for ascii and FITS format files. Utility classes for command-line processing and configuration-file processing are provided as well.
SkyNet is an efficient and robust neural network training code for machine learning. It is able to train large and deep feed-forward neural networks, including autoencoders, for use in a wide range of supervised and unsupervised learning applications, such as regression, classification, density estimation, clustering and dimensionality reduction. SkyNet is implemented in C/C++ and fully parallelized using MPI.
BAMBI (Blind Accelerated Multimodal Bayesian Inference) is a Bayesian inference engine that combines the benefits of SkyNet (ascl:1312.007) with MultiNest (ascl:1109.006). It operated by simultaneously performing Bayesian inference using MultiNest and learning the likelihood function using SkyNet. Once SkyNet has learnt the likelihood to sufficient accuracy, inference finishes almost instantaneously.
YODA, implemented in C++, performs object detection, photometry and star-galaxy classification on astronomical images. Developed specifically to cope with the multi-band imaging data common in modern extragalactic imaging surveys, it is modular and therefore easily adaptable to specific needs. YODA works under conditions of inhomogeneous background noise across the detection frame, and performs accurate aperture photometry in image sets not sharing a common coordinate system or pixel scale as is often the case in present-day extragalactic survey work.
GalaxyCount calculates the number and standard deviation of galaxies in a magnitude limited observation of a given area. The methods to calculate both the number and standard deviation may be selected from different options. Variances may be computed for circular, elliptical and rectangular window functions.
Photon asymmetry is a novel robust substructure statistic for X-ray cluster observations with only a few thousand counts; it exhibits better stability than power ratios and centroid shifts and has a smaller statistical uncertainty than competing substructure parameters, allowing for low levels of substructure to be measured with confidence. A_phot computes the photon asymmetry (A_phot) parameter for morphological classification of clusters and allows quantifying substructure in samples of distant clusters covering a wide range of observational signal-to-noise ratios. The python scripts are completely automatic and can be used to rapidly classify galaxy cluster morphology for large numbers of clusters without human intervention.
The BI-spectra and Non-Gaussianity Operator (BINGO) code, written in Fortran, computes the scalar bi-spectrum and the non-Gaussianity parameter fNL in single field inflationary models involving the canonical scalar field. BINGO can calculate all the different contributions to the bi-spectrum and the parameter fNL for an arbitrary triangular configuration of the wavevectors.
CJAM calculates first and second velocity moments using the Jeans Anisotropic MGE (JAM) models of Cappellari (2008) and Cappellari (2012). These models have been extended to calculate all three (x, y, z) first moments and all six (xx, yy, zz, xy, xz, yz) second moments. CJAM, written in C, is based on the IDL implementation of the line-of-sight calculations by Michele Cappellari.
SL1M deconvolves radio synthesis images based on direct inversion of the measured visibilities that can deal with the non-coplanar base line effect and can be applied to telescopes with direction dependent gains. The code is more computationally demanding than some existing methods, but is highly parallelizable and scale well to clusters of CPUs and GPUs. The algorithm is also extremely flexible, allowing the solution of the deconvolution problem on arbitrarily placed pixels.
SciDB is a DMAS (Data Management and Analytics Software System) optimized for data management of big data and for big analytics. SciDB is organized around multidimensional array storage, a generalization of relational tables, and is designed to be scalable up to petabytes and beyond. Complex analytics are simplified with SciDB because arrays and vectors are first-class objects with built-in optimized operations. Spatial operators and time-series analysis are easy to express. Interfaces to common scientific tools like R as well as programming languages like C++ and Python are provided.
PyCOOL is a Python + CUDA program that solves the evolution of interacting scalar fields in an expanding universe. PyCOOL uses modern GPUs to solve this evolution and to make the computation much faster. The code includes numerous post-processing functions that provide useful information about the cosmological model, including various spectra and statistics of the fields.
ASCII tables continue to be one of the most popular and widely used data exchange formats in astronomy. AstroAsciiData, written in Python, imports all reasonably well-formed ASCII tables. It retains formatting of data values, allows column-first access, supports SExtractor style headings, performs column sorting, and exports data to other formats, including FITS, Numpy/Numarray, and LaTeX table format. It also offers interchangeable comment character, column delimiter and null value.
PlanetPack facilitates and standardizes the advanced analysis of radial velocity (RV) data for the goal of exoplanets detection, characterization, and basic dynamical N-body simulations. PlanetPack is a command-line interpreter that can run either in an interactive mode or in a batch mode of automatic script interpretation.
Spheroid determines the size distribution of polarizing interstellar dust grains based on electromagnetic scattering by spheroidal particles. It contains subroutines to treat the case of complex refractive indices, and also includes checks for some limiting cases.
CIAO is a data analysis system written for the needs of users of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Because Chandra data is 4-dimensional (2 spatial, time, energy) and each dimension has many independent elements, CIAO was built to handle N-dimensional data without concern about which particular axes were being analyzed. Apart from a few Chandra instrument tools, CIAO is mission independent. CIAO tools read and write several formats, including FITS images and tables (which includes event files) and IRAF imh files. CIAO is a powerful system for the analysis of many types of data.
The CUPID package allows the identification and analysis of clumps of emission within 1, 2 or 3 dimensional data arrays. Whilst targeted primarily at sub-mm cubes, it can be used on any regularly gridded 1, 2 or 3D data. A variety of clump finding algorithms are implemented within CUPID, including the established ClumpFind (ascl:1107.014) and GaussClumps algorithms. In addition, two new algorithms called FellWalker and Reinhold are also provided. CUPID allows easy inter-comparison between the results of different algorithms; the catalogues produced by each algorithm contains a standard set of columns containing clump peak position, clump centroid position, the integrated data value within the clump, clump volume, and the dimensions of the clump. In addition, pixel masks are produced identifying which input pixels contribute to each clump. CUPID is distributed as part of the Starlink (ascl:1110.012) software collection.
Written in c, the Customizable User Pipeline for IRS Data (CUPID) allows users to run the Spitzer IRS Pipelines to re-create Basic Calibrated Data and extract calibrated spectra from the archived raw files. CUPID provides full access to all the parameters of the BCD, COADD, BKSUB, BKSUBX, and COADDX pipelines, as well as the opportunity for users to provide their own calibration files (e.g., flats or darks). CUPID is available for Mac, Linux, and Solaris operating systems.
CosmoTherm allows precise computation of CMB spectral distortions caused by energy release in the early Universe. Different energy-release scenarios (e.g., decaying or annihilating particles) are implemented using the Green's function of the cosmological thermalization problem, allowing fast computation of the distortion signal. The full thermalization problem can be solved on a case-by-case basis for a wide range of energy-release scenarios using the full PDE solver of CosmoTherm. A simple Monte-Carlo toolkit is included for parameter estimation and forecasts using the Green's function method.
ARPACK is a collection of Fortran77 subroutines designed to solve large scale eigenvalue problems. The package is designed to compute a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a general n by n matrix A. It is most appropriate for large sparse or structured matrices A where structured means that a matrix-vector product w <- Av requires order n rather than the usual order n2 floating point operations. This software is based upon an algorithmic variant of the Arnoldi process called the Implicitly Restarted Arnoldi Method (IRAM). When the matrix A is symmetric it reduces to a variant of the Lanczos process called the Implicitly Restarted Lanczos Method (IRLM). These variants may be viewed as a synthesis of the Arnoldi/Lanczos process with the Implicitly Shifted QR technique that is suitable for large scale problems. For many standard problems, a matrix factorization is not required; only the action of the matrix on a vector is needed. ARPACK is capable of solving large scale symmetric, nonsymmetric, and generalized eigenproblems from significant application areas.
MUSIC generates multi-scale initial conditions with multiple levels of refinements for cosmological ‘zoom-in’ simulations. The code uses an adaptive convolution of Gaussian white noise with a real-space transfer function kernel together with an adaptive multi-grid Poisson solver to generate displacements and velocities following first- (1LPT) or second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT). MUSIC achieves rms relative errors of the order of 10−4 for displacements and velocities in the refinement region and thus improves in terms of errors by about two orders of magnitude over previous approaches. In addition, errors are localized at coarse-fine boundaries and do not suffer from Fourier space-induced interference ringing.
Written for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) high-latitude survey, the exposure time calculator (ETC) works in both imaging and spectroscopic modes. In addition to the standard ETC functions (e.g. background and S/N determination), the calculator integrates over the galaxy population and forecasts the density and redshift distribution of galaxy shapes usable for weak lensing (in imaging mode) and the detected emission lines (in spectroscopic mode). The program may be useful outside of WFIRST but no warranties are made regarding its suitability for general purposes. The software is available for download; IPAC maintains a web interface for those who wish to run a small number of cases without having to download the package.
ORAC-DR is a generic data reduction pipeline infrastructure; it includes specific data processing recipes for a number of instruments. It is used at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, AAT, and LCOGT. This pipeline runs at the JCMT Science Archive hosted by CADC to generate near-publication quality data products; the code has been in use since 1998.
PyMSES provides a python solution for getting data out of RAMSES (ascl:1011.007) astrophysical fluid dynamics simulations. It permits transparent manipulation of large simulations and interfaces with common Python libraries and existing code, and can serve as a post-processing toolbox for data analysis. It also does three-dimensional volume rendering with a specific algorithm optimized to work on RAMSES distributed data (Guillet et al. 2011 and Jones et a. 2011).
AIDA is an implementation and extension of the MISTRAL myopic deconvolution method developed by Mugnier et al. (2004) (see J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21:1841-1854). The MISTRAL approach has been shown to yield object reconstructions with excellent edge preservation and photometric precision when used to process astronomical images. AIDA improves upon the original MISTRAL implementation. AIDA, written in Python, can deconvolve multiple frame data and three-dimensional image stacks encountered in adaptive optics and light microscopic imaging.
ASPRO 2 (Astronomical Software to PRepare Observations) is an observation preparation tool for interferometric observations with the VLTI or other interferometers such as CHARA and SUSI. It is a Java standalone program that provides a dynamic graphical interface to simulate the projected baseline evolution during observations (super-synthesis) and derive visibilities for targets (i.e., single star, binaries, user defined FITS image). It offers other useful functions such as the ability to load and save your observation settings and generate Observing Blocks.
AIPSLite is an extension for ParselTongue (ascl:1208.020) that allows machines without an AIPS (ascl:9911.003) distribution to bootstrap themselves with a minimal AIPS environment. This allows deployment of AIPS routines on distributed systems, which is useful when data can be easily be split into smaller chunks and handled independently.
SMURF reduces submillimeter single-dish continuum and heterodyne data. It is mainly targeted at data produced by the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope but data from other telescopes have been reduced using the package. SMURF is released as part of the bundle that comprises Starlink (ascl:1110.012) and most of the packages that use it. The two key commands are MAKEMAP for the creation of maps from sub millimeter continuum data and MAKECUBE for the creation of data cubes from heterodyne array instruments. The software can also convert data from legacy JCMT file formats to the modern form to allow it to be processed by MAKECUBE. SMURF is a core component of the ORAC-DR (ascl:1310.001) data reduction pipeline for JCMT.
SPECX is a general purpose line data reduction system. It can read and write FITS data cubes but has specialist support for the GSD format data from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. It includes commands to store and retrieve intermediate spectra in storage registers and perform the fitting and removal of polynomial, harmonic and Gaussian baselines.
SPECX can filter and edit spectra and list and display spectra on a graphics terminal. It is able to perform Fourier transform and power spectrum calculations, process up to eight spectra (quadrants) simultaneously with either the same or different center, and assemble a number of reduced individual spectra into a map file and contour or greyscale any plane or planes of the resulting cube.
Two versions of SPECX are distributed. Version 6.x is the VMS and Unix version and is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection. Version 7.x is a complete rewrite of SPECX distributed for Windows.
AstroImageJ is generic ImageJ (ascl:1206.013) with customizations to the base code and a packaged set of astronomy specific plugins. It reads and writes FITS images with standard headers, displays astronomical coordinates for images with WCS, supports photometry for developing color-magnitude data, offers flat field, scaled dark, and non-linearity processing, and includes tools for precision photometry that can be used during real-time data acquisition.
VAPHOT is an aperture photometry package for precise time−series photometry of uncrowded fields, geared towards the extraction of target lightcurves of eclipsing or transiting systems. Its photometric main routine works within the IRAF (ascl:9911.002) environment and is built upon the standard aperture photometry task 'phot' from IRAF, using optimized aperture sizes. The associated analysis program 'VANALIZ' works in the IDL environment. It performs differential photometry with graphical and numerical output. VANALIZ produces plots indicative of photometric stability and permits the interactive evaluation and weighting of comparison stars. Also possible is the automatic or manual suppression of data-points and the output of statistical analyses. Several methods for the calculation of the reference brightness are offered. Specific routines for the analysis of transit 'on'-'off' photometry, comparing the target brightness inside against outside a transit are also available.
LOSP is a FORTRAN77 numerical package that computes the orbital parameters of spectroscopic binaries. The package deals with SB1 and SB2 systems and is able to adjust either circular or eccentric orbits through a weighted fit.
The Spherical Library provides an efficient and accurate mathematical representation of shapes on the celestial sphere, such as sky coverage and footprints. Shapes of arbitrary complexity and size can be dynamically created from simple building blocks, whose exact area is also analytically computed. This methodology is also perfectly suited for censoring problematic parts of datasets, e.g., bad seeing, satellite trails or diffraction spikes of bright stars.
SATMC is a general purpose, MCMC-based SED fitting code written for IDL and Python. Following Bayesian statistics and Monte Carlo Markov Chain algorithms, SATMC derives the best fit parameter values and returns the sampling of parameter space used to construct confidence intervals and parameter-parameter confidence contours. The fitting may cover any range of wavelengths. The code is designed to incorporate any models (and potential priors) of the user's choice. The user guide lists all the relevant details for including observations, models and usage under both IDL and Python.
VOPlot is a tool for visualizing astronomical data. It was developed in Java and acts on data available in VOTABLE, ASCII and FITS formats. VOPlot is available as a stand alone version, which is to be installed on the user's machine, or as a web-based version fully integrated with the VizieR database.
VOMegaPlot, a Java based tool, has been developed for visualizing astronomical data that is available in VOTable format. It has been specifically optimized for handling large number of points (in the range of millions). It has the same look and feel as VOPlot (ascl:1309.006) and both these tools have certain common functionality.
VOStat allows astronomers to use both simple and sophisticated statistical routines on large datasets. This tool uses the large public-domain statistical computing package R. Datasets can be uploaded in either ASCII or VOTABLE (preferred) format. The statistical computations are performed by the VOStat and results are returned to the user.
SMILE is interactive software for studying a variety of 2D and 3D models, including arbitrary potentials represented by a basis-set expansion, a spherical-harmonic expansion with coefficients being smooth functions of radius (splines), or a set of fixed point masses. Its main features include:
LOSSCONE computes the rates of capture of stars by supermassive black holes. It uses a stationary and time-dependent solutions for the Fokker-Planck equation describing the evolution of the distribution function of stars due to two-body relaxation, and works for arbitrary spherical and axisymmetric galactic models that are provided by the user in the form of M(r), the cumulative mass as a function of radius.
MapCurvature, written in IDL, can create map projections with Goldberg-Gott indicatrices. These indicatrices measure the flexion and skewness of a map, and are useful for determining whether features are faithfully reproduced on a particular projection.
LensEnt2 is a maximum entropy reconstructor of weak lensing mass maps. The method takes each galaxy shape as an independent estimator of the reduced shear field and incorporates an intrinsic smoothness, determined by Bayesian methods, into the reconstruction. The uncertainties from both the intrinsic distribution of galaxy shapes and galaxy shape estimation are carried through to the final mass reconstruction, and the mass within arbitrarily shaped apertures are calculated with corresponding uncertainties. The input is a galaxy ellipticity catalog with each measured galaxy shape treated as a noisy tracer of the reduced shear field, which is inferred on a fine pixel grid assuming positivity, and smoothness on scales of w arcsec where w is an input parameter. The ICF width w can be chosen by computing the evidence for it.
APPSPACK is serial or parallel, derivative-free optimization software for solving nonlinear unconstrained, bound-constrained, and linearly-constrained optimization problems, with possibly noisy and expensive objective functions.
BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.
SYNAPPS is a spectrum fitter embedding a highly parameterized synthetic SN spectrum calculation within a parallel asynchronous optimizer. This open-source code is aimed primarily at the problem of systematically interpreting large sets of SN spectroscopy data.
CReSyPS (Code Rennais de Synthèse de Populations Stellaires) is a stellar population synthesis code that determines core overshooting amount for Magellanic clouds main sequence stars.
GYRE is an oscillation code that solves the stellar pulsation equations (both adiabatic and non-adiabatic) using a novel Magnus Multiple Shooting numerical scheme devised to overcome certain weaknesses of the usual relaxation and shooting schemes. The code is accurate (up to 6th order in the number of grid points), robust, and makes efficient use of multiple processor cores and/or nodes.
CRUSH is an astronomical data reduction/imaging tool for certain imaging cameras, especially at the millimeter, sub-millimeter, and far-infrared wavelengths. It supports the SHARC-2, LABOCA, SABOCA, ASZCA, p-ArTeMiS, PolKa, GISMO, MAKO and SCUBA-2 instruments. The code is written entirely in Java, allowing it to run on virtually any platform. It is normally run from the command-line with several arguments.
RADLite is a raytracer that is optimized for producing infrared line spectra and images from axisymmetric density structures, originally developed to function on top of the dust radiative transfer code RADMC. RADLite can consistently deal with a wide range of velocity gradients, such as those typical for the inner regions of protoplanetary disks. The code is intended as a back-end for chemical and excitation codes, and can rapidly produce spectra of thousands of lines for grids of models for comparison with observations. It includes functionality for simulating telescopic images for optical/IR/midIR/farIR telescopes. It takes advantage of multi-threaded CPUs and includes an escape-probability non-LTE module.
THELI is an easy-to-use, end-to-end pipeline for the reduction of any optical, near-IR and mid-IR imaging data. It combines a variety of processing algorithms and third party software into a single, homogeneous tool. Over 90 optical and infrared instruments at observatories world-wide are pre-configured; more can be added by the user. The code's online appendix contains three walk-through examples using public data (optical, near-IR and mid-IR) and additional online documentation is available for training and troubleshooting.
SPEX is optimized for the analysis and interpretation of high-resolution cosmic X-ray spectra. The software is especially suited for fitting spectra obtained by current X-ray observatories like XMM-Newton, Chandra, and Suzaku. SPEX can fit multiple spectra with different model components simultaneously and handles highly complex models with many free parameters.
Ceph_code fits multi-band Cepheid light-curves using templates derived from OGLE observations. The templates include short period stars (<10 day) and overtone stars.
JHelioview is open source visualization software for solar physics data. The JHelioviewer client application enables users to browse petabyte-scale image archives; the JHelioviewer server integrates a JPIP server, metadata catalog, and an event server. JHelioview uses the JPEG 2000 image compression standard, which provides efficient access to petabyte-scale image archives; JHelioviewer also allows users to locate and manipulate specific data sets.
ChiantiPy is an object-orient Python package for calculating astrophysical spectra using the CHIANTI atomic database for astrophysical spectroscopy. It provides access to the database and the ability to calculate various physical quantities for the interpretation of astrophysical spectra.
MOOGStokes is a version of the MOOG one-dimensional local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer code that incorporates a Stokes vector treatment of polarized radiation through a magnetic medium. It consists of three complementary programs that together can synthesize the disk-averaged emergent spectrum of a star with a magnetic field. The MOOGStokes package synthesizes emergent spectra of stars with magnetic fields in a familiar computational framework and produces disk-averaged spectra for all Stokes vectors ( I, Q, U, V ), normalized by the continuum.
DustEM computes the extinction and the emission of interstellar dust grains heated by photons. It is written in Fortran 95 and is jointly developed by IAS and CESR. The dust emission is calculated in the optically thin limit (no radiative transfer) and the default spectral range is 40 to 108 nm. The code is designed so dust properties can easily be changed and mixed and to allow for the inclusion of new grain physics.
K3Match is a C library with Python bindings for fast matching of points in 3D space. It uses an implementation of three dimensional binary trees to efficiently find matches between points in 3D space. Two lists of points are compared and match indices as well as distances are given. K3Match can find either the nearest neighbour or all matches within a given search distance in 3D Cartesian space or on the surface of the 2D unit sphere in standard spherical or celestial coordinates.
FieldInf is a collection of fast modern Fortran routines for computing exactly the background evolution and primordial power spectra of any single field inflationary models. It implements reheating without any assumptions through the "reheating parameter" R allowing robust inflationary parameter estimations and inference on the reheating energy scale. The underlying perturbation code actually deals with N fields minimally-coupled and/or non-minimally coupled to gravity and works for flat FLRW only.
Lensview models resolved gravitational lens systems based on LensMEM but using the Skilling & Bryan MEM algorithm. Though its primary purpose is to find statistically acceptable lens models for lensed images and to reconstruct the surface brightness profile of the source, LENSVIEW can also be used for more simple tasks such as projecting a given source through a lens model to generate a “true” image by conserving surface brightness. The user can specify complicated lens models based on one or more components, such as softened isothermal ellipsoids, point masses, exponential discs, and external shears; LENSVIEW generates a best-fitting source matching the observed data for each specific combination of model parameters.
im2shape is a Bayesian approach to the problem of accurate measurement of galaxy ellipticities for weak lensing studies, in particular cosmic shear. im2shape parameterizes galaxies as sums of Gaussians, convolved with a psf which is also a sum of Gaussians. The uncertainties in the output parameters are calculated using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach.
AstroTaverna is a plugin for Taverna Workbench that provides the means to build astronomy workflows using Virtual Observatory services discovery and efficient manipulation of VOTables (based on STIL tool set). It integrates SAMP-enabled software, allowing data exchange and communication among local VO tools, as well as the ability to execute Aladin scripts and macros.
Obit is a group of software packages for handling radio astronomy data, especially interferometric and single dish OTF imaging. Obit is primarily an environment in which new data processing algorithms can be developed and tested but which can also be used for production processing of a certain range of scientific problems. The package supports both prepackaged, compiled tasks and a python interface to the major class functionality to allow rapid prototyping using python scripts; it allows access to multiple disk--resident data formats, in particular access to either AIPS disk data or FITS files. Obit applications are interoperable with Classic AIPS and the ObitTalk python interface gives access to AIPS tasks as well as Obit libraries and tasks.
MAH calculates the posterior distribution of the "minimum atmospheric height" (MAH) of an exoplanet by inputting the joint posterior distribution of the mass and radius. The code collapses the two dimensions of mass and radius into a one dimensional term that most directly speaks to whether the planet has an atmosphere or not. The joint mass-radius posteriors derived from a fit of some exoplanet data (likely using MCMC) can be used by MAH to evaluate the posterior distribution of R_MAH, from which the significance of a non-zero R_MAH (i.e. an atmosphere is present) is calculated.
Cosmoxi2d is written in C and computes the theoretical two-point galaxy correlation function as a function of cosmological and galaxy nuisance parameters. It numerically evaluates the model described in detail in Reid and White 2011 (arxiv:1105.4165) and Reid et al. 2012 (arxiv:1203.6641) for the multipole moments (up to ell = 4) for the observed redshift space correlation function of biased tracers as a function of cosmological (though an input linear matter power spectrum, growth rate f, and Alcock-Paczynski geometric factors alphaperp and alphapar) as well as nuisance parameters describing the tracers (bias and small scale additive velocity dispersion, isotropicdisp1d).
This model works best for highly biased tracers where the 2nd order bias term is small. On scales larger than 100 Mpc, the code relies on 2nd order Lagrangian Perturbation theory as detailed in Matsubara 2008 (PRD 78, 083519), and uses the analytic version of Reid and White 2011 on smaller scales.
The Photon Simulator (PhoSim) is a set of fast photon Monte Carlo codes used to calculate the physics of the atmosphere, telescope, and detector by using modern numerical techniques applied to comprehensive physical models. PhoSim generates images by collecting photons into pixels. The code takes the description of what astronomical objects are in the sky at a particular time (the instance catalog) as well as the description of the observing configuration (the operational parameters) and produces a realistic data stream of images that are similar to what a real telescope would produce. PhoSim was developed for large aperture wide field optical telescopes, such as the planned design of LSST. The initial version of the simulator also targeted the LSST telescope and camera design, but the code has since been broadened to include existing telescopes of a related nature. The atmospheric model, in particular, includes physical approximations that are limited to this general context.
ITERA, the IDL Tool for Emission-line Ratio Analysis, is an IDL widget tool that allows you to plot ratios of any strong atomic and ionized emission lines as determined by standard photoionization and shock models. These "line ratio diagrams" can then be used to determine diagnostics for nebulae excitation mechanisms or nebulae parameters such as density, temperature, metallicity, etc. ITERA can also be used to determine line sensitivities to such parameters, compare observations with the models, or even estimate unobserved line fluxes.
SIMX simulates a photon-counting detector's response to an input source, including a simplified model of any telescope. The code is not a full ray-trace, but a convolution tool that uses standard descriptions of telescope PSF (via either a simple Gaussian parameter, an energy-dependent encircled-energy function, or an image of the PSF) and the detector response (using the OGIP response function) to model how sources will appear. simx uses a predefined set of PSFs, vignetting information, and instrumental responses and outputs to make the simulation. It is designed to be a 'approximation' tool to estimate issues such as source confusion, background effects, pileup, and other similar issues.
Shapelets are a complete, orthonormal set of 2D basis functions constructed from Laguerre or Hermite polynomials weighted by a Gaussian. A linear combination of these functions can be used to model any image, in a similar way to Fourier or wavelet synthesis. The shapelet decomposition is particularly efficient for images localized in space, and provide a high level of compression for individual galaxies in astronomical data. The basis has many elegant mathematical properties that make it convenient for image analysis and processing.
Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) due to radiation damage above the Earth's atmosphere creates spurious trailing in images from Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) imaging detectors. Radiation damage also creates unrelated warm pixels, which can be used to measure CTI. This code provides pixel-based correction for CTI and has proven effective in Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys raw images, successfully reducing the CTI trails by a factor of ~30 everywhere in the CCD and at all flux levels. The core is written in java for speed, and a front-end user interface is provided in IDL. The code operates on raw data by returning individual electrons to pixels from which they were unintentionally dragged during readout. Correction takes about 25 minutes per ACS exposure, but is trivially parallelisable to multiple processors.
Orbfit determines positions and orbital elements, and associated uncertainties, of outer solar system planets. The orbit-fitting procedure is greatly streamlined compared with traditional methods because acceleration can be treated as a perturbation to the inertial motion of the body. Orbfit quickly and accurately calculates orbital elements and ephemerides and their associated uncertainties for targets ≳ 10 AU from the Sun and produces positional estimates and uncertainty ellipses even in the face of the substantial degeneracies of short-arc orbit fits; the sole a priori assumption is that the orbit should be bound or nearly so.
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