Results 951-1000 of 2433 (2398 ASCL, 35 submitted)
Orbfit determines positions and orbital elements, and associated uncertainties, of outer solar system planets. The orbit-fitting procedure is greatly streamlined compared with traditional methods because acceleration can be treated as a perturbation to the inertial motion of the body. Orbfit quickly and accurately calculates orbital elements and ephemerides and their associated uncertainties for targets ≳ 10 AU from the Sun and produces positional estimates and uncertainty ellipses even in the face of the substantial degeneracies of short-arc orbit fits; the sole a priori assumption is that the orbit should be bound or nearly so.
ORBE performs numerical integration of an arbitrary planetary system composed by a central star and up to 100 planets and minor bodies. ORBE calculates the orbital evolution of a system of bodies by means of the computation of the time evolution of their orbital elements. It is easy to use and is suitable for educational use by undergraduate students in the classroom as a first approach to orbital integrators.
ORBADV adopts a ZEUS-like scheme to solve magnetohydrodynamic equations of motion in a shearing sheet. The magnetic field is discretized on a staggered mesh, and magnetic field variables represent fluxes through zone faces. The code uses obital advection to ensure fast and accurate integration in a large shearing box.
ORAC-DR is a generic data reduction pipeline infrastructure; it includes specific data processing recipes for a number of instruments. It is used at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, AAT, and LCOGT. This pipeline runs at the JCMT Science Archive hosted by CADC to generate near-publication quality data products; the code has been in use since 1998.
OPUS (Observatoire de Paris UWS System) provides interoperable access to analysis and simulation codes on local machines or work clusters. This job control system was developed using the micro-framework bottle.py, and executes jobs asynchronously to better manage jobs with a long execution duration. The software follows the proposed IVOA Provenance Data Model to capture and expose the provenance information of jobs and results.
optBINS (optimal binning) determines the optimal number of bins in a uniform bin-width histogram by deriving the posterior probability for the number of bins in a piecewise-constant density model after assigning a multinomial likelihood and a non-informative prior. The maximum of the posterior probability occurs at a point where the prior probability and the the joint likelihood are balanced. The interplay between these opposing factors effectively implements Occam's razor by selecting the most simple model that best describes the data.
The Opik method gives the mean probability of collision of a small body with a given planet. It is a statistical value valid for an orbit with given (a,e,i) and undefined argument of perihelion. In some cases, the planet can eject the small body from the solar system; in these cases, the program estimates the mean time for the ejection. The Opik method does not take into account other perturbers than the planet considered, so it only provides an idea of the timescales involved.
OPERA (Open-source Pipeline for Espadons Reduction and Analysis) is an open-source collaborative software reduction pipeline for ESPaDOnS data. ESPaDOnS is a bench-mounted high-resolution echelle spectrograph and spectro-polarimeter designed to obtain a complete optical spectrum (from 370 to 1,050 nm) in a single exposure with a mode-dependent resolving power between 68,000 and 81,000. OPERA is fully automated, calibrates on two-dimensional images and reduces data to produce one-dimensional intensity and polarimetric spectra. Spectra are extracted using an optimal extraction algorithm. Though designed for CFHT ESPaDOnS data, the pipeline is extensible to other echelle spectrographs.
OPERA (Objective Prism Enhanced Reduction Algorithms) automatically analyzes astronomical images using the objective-prism (OP) technique to register thousands of low resolution spectra in large areas. It detects objects in an image, extracts one-dimensional spectra, and identifies the emission line feature. The main advantages of this method are: 1) to avoid subjectivity inherent to visual inspection used in past studies; and 2) the ability to obtain physical parameters without follow-up spectroscopy.
OpenSPH runs hydrodynamical and N-body simulations and was written for asteroid collisions and subsequent gravitational evolution. The code offers SPH and N-body solvers with several different equations of state and material rheologies. It is written in C++14 with a modular object-oriented design, focused on extensibility and maintainability, and it can be used either as a library or as a standalone graphical program that allows to set up the problem in a convenient graphical node editor. The graphical program further allows real-time visualization of the simulation, diagnostics and tools for analysis of the results.
OpenOrb (OOrb) contains tools for rigorously estimating the uncertainties resulting from the inverse problem of computing orbital elements using scarce astrometry. It uses the least-squares method and also contains both Monte-Carlo (MC) and Markov-Chain MC versions of the statistical ranging method. Ranging obtains sampled, non-Gaussian orbital-element probability-density functions and is optimized for cases where the amount of astrometry is scarce or spans a relatively short time interval.
OpenMHD is a Godunov-type finite-volume code for ideal/resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is written in Fortran 90 and is parallelized by using MPI-3 and OpenMP. The code was originally developed for studying magnetic reconnection problems and has been made publicly available in the hope that others may find it useful.
OoT (Out-of-Transit) calculates the light curves and radial velocity signals due to a planet orbiting a star. It explicitly models the effects of tides, orbital motion. relativistic beaming, and reflection of the stars light by the planet. The code can also be used to model secondary eclipses.
OMNICAL calibrates antennas in the redundant subset of the array. The code consists of two algorithms, a logarithmic method (logcal) and a linearized method (lincal). OMNICAL makes visibilities from physically redundant baselines agree with each other and also explicitly minimizes the variance within redundant visibilities.
OMEGA (One-zone Model for the Evolution of GAlaxies) calculates the global chemical evolution trends of galaxies. From an input star formation history, it uses SYGMA to create as a function of time multiple simple stellar populations with different masses, ages, and initial compositions. OMEGA offers several prescriptions for modeling the star formation efficiency and the evolution of galactic inflows and outflows. OMEGA is part of the NuGrid (ascl:1610.015) chemical evolution package.
In the context of optical interferometry, only undersampled power spectrum and bispectrum data are accessible, creating an ill-posed inverse problem for image recovery. Recently, a tri-linear model was proposed for monochromatic imaging, leading to an alternated minimization problem; in that work, only a positivity constraint was considered, and the problem was solved by an approximated Gauss–Seidel method.
The Optical-Interferometry-Trilinear code improves the approach on three fundamental aspects. First, the estimated image is defined as a solution of a regularized minimization problem, promoting sparsity in a fixed dictionary using either an l1 or a (re)weighted-l1 regularization term. Second, the resultant non-convex minimization problem is solved using a block-coordinate forward–backward algorithm. This algorithm is able to deal both with smooth and non-smooth functions, and benefits from convergence guarantees even in a non-convex context. Finally, the model and algorithm are generalized to the hyperspectral case, promoting a joint sparsity prior through an l2,1 regularization term.
Odyssey is a GPU-based General Relativistic Radiative Transfer (GRRT) code for computing images and/or spectra in Kerr metric describing the spacetime around a rotating black hole. Odyssey is implemented in CUDA C/C++. For flexibility, the namespace structure in C++ is used for different tasks; the two default tasks presented in the source code are the redshift of a Keplerian disk and the image of a Keplerian rotating shell at 340GHz. Odyssey_Edu, an educational software package for visualizing the ray trajectories in the Kerr spacetime that uses Odyssey, is also available.
ODUSSEAS (Observing Dwarfs Using Stellar Spectroscopic Energy-Absorption Shapes) uses machine learning to derive the Teff and [Fe/H] of M dwarf stars by using their optical spectra obtained by different spectrographs with different resolutions. The software uses the measurement of the pseudo equivalent widths for more than 4000 stellar absorption lines and the machine learning Python package scikit-learn (https://scikit-learn.org/stable/) to predict the stellar parameters.
ODTBX (Orbit Determination Toolbox) provides orbit determination analysis, advanced mission simulation, and analysis for concept exploration, proposal, early design phase, and/or rapid design center environments. The core ODTBX functionality is realized through a set of estimation commands that incorporate Monte Carlo data simulation, linear covariance analysis, and measurement processing at a generic level; its functions and utilities are combined in a flexible architecture to allow modular development of navigation algorithms and simulations. ODTBX is written in Matlab and Java.
ODEPACK solves for the initial value problem for ordinary differential equation systems. It consists of nine solvers, a basic solver called LSODE and eight variants of it: LSODES, LSODA, LSODAR, LSODPK, LSODKR, LSODI, LSOIBT, and LSODIS. The collection is suitable for both stiff and nonstiff systems. It includes solvers for systems given in explicit form, dy/dt = f(t,y), and also solvers for systems given in linearly implicit form, A(t,y) dy/dt = g(t,y). The ODEPACK solvers are written in standard Fortran and there are separate double and single precision versions. Each solver consists of a main driver subroutine having the same name as the solver and some number of subordinate routines. For each solver, there is also a demonstration program, which solves one or two simple problems in a somewhat self-checking manner.
Octo-Tiger models mass transfer in binary systems using a Cartesian adaptive mesh refinement grid. It simulates the evolution of star systems based on a modified fast multipole method (FMM) on adaptive octrees. The code takes shock heating into account and uses the dual energy formalism with an ideal gas equation of state; it also conserves linear and angular momenta to machine precision. Octo-Tiger is implemented in C++ and is parallelized using the High Performance ParalleX (HPX) runtime system.
Octgrav is a very fast tree-code which runs on massively parallel Graphical Processing Units (GPU) with NVIDIA CUDA architecture. The algorithms are based on parallel-scan and sort methods. The tree-construction and calculation of multipole moments is carried out on the host CPU, while the force calculation which consists of tree walks and evaluation of interaction list is carried out on the GPU. In this way, a sustained performance of about 100GFLOP/s and data transfer rates of about 50GB/s is achieved. It takes about a second to compute forces on a million particles with an opening angle of $ heta approx 0.5$.
To test the performance and feasibility, we implemented the algorithms in CUDA in the form of a gravitational tree-code which completely runs on the GPU. The tree construction and traverse algorithms are portable to many-core devices which have support for CUDA or OpenCL programming languages. The gravitational tree-code outperforms tuned CPU code during the tree-construction and shows a performance improvement of more than a factor 20 overall, resulting in a processing rate of more than 2.8 million particles per second.
The code has a convenient user interface and is freely available for use.
The OctApps library provides various functions, written in Octave, for performing searches for the weak signatures of continuous gravitational waves from rapidly-rotating neutron stars amidst the instrumental noise of the LIGO and Virgo detectors.
OCFit fits and analyzes O-C diagrams using Genetic Algorithms and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. The MC method is used to determine a very good estimation of errors of the parameters. Unlike some other fitting routines, OCFit does not need any initial values of fitted parameters. An intuitive graphic user interface is provided for ease of fitting, and nine common models of periodic O-C changes are included.
OCD (O'Connell Effect Detector) detects eclipsing binaries that demonstrate the O'Connell Effect. This time-domain signature extraction methodology uses a supporting supervised pattern detection algorithm. The methodology maps stellar variable observations (time-domain data) to a new representation known as Distribution Fields (DF), the properties of which enable efficient handling of issues such as irregular sampling and multiple values per time instance. Using this representation, the code applies a metric learning technique directly on the DF space capable of specifically identifying the stars of interest; the metric is tuned on a set of labeled eclipsing binary data from the Kepler survey, targeting particular systems exhibiting the O’Connell Effect. This code is useful for large-scale data volumes such as that expected from next generation telescopes such as LSST.
Obit is a group of software packages for handling radio astronomy data, especially interferometric and single dish OTF imaging. Obit is primarily an environment in which new data processing algorithms can be developed and tested but which can also be used for production processing of a certain range of scientific problems. The package supports both prepackaged, compiled tasks and a python interface to the major class functionality to allow rapid prototyping using python scripts; it allows access to multiple disk--resident data formats, in particular access to either AIPS disk data or FITS files. Obit applications are interoperable with Classic AIPS and the ObitTalk python interface gives access to AIPS tasks as well as Obit libraries and tasks.
OBERON (OBliquity and Energy balance Run on N-body systems) models the climate of Earthlike planets under the effects of an arbitrary number and arrangement of other bodies, such as stars, planets and moons. The code, written in C++, simultaneously computes N body motions using a 4th order Hermite integrator, simulates climates using a 1D latitudinal energy balance model, and evolves the orbital spin of bodies using the equations of Laskar (1986a,b).
O2scl is an object-oriented library for scientific computing in C++ useful for solving, minimizing, differentiating, integrating, interpolating, optimizing, approximating, analyzing, fitting, and more. Many classes operate on generic function and vector types; it includes classes based on GSL and CERNLIB. O2scl also contains code for computing the basic thermodynamic integrals for fermions and bosons, for generating almost all of the most common equations of state of nuclear and neutron star matter, and for solving the TOV equations. O2scl can be used on Linux, Mac and Windows (Cygwin) platforms and has extensive documentation.
Nyx code solves equations of compressible hydrodynamics on an adaptive grid hierarchy coupled with an N-body treatment of dark matter. The gas dynamics in Nyx use a finite volume methodology on an adaptive set of 3-D Eulerian grids; dark matter is represented as discrete particles moving under the influence of gravity. Particles are evolved via a particle-mesh method, using Cloud-in-Cell deposition/interpolation scheme. Both baryonic and dark matter contribute to the gravitational field. In addition, Nyx includes physics for accurately modeling the intergalactic medium; in optically thin limits and assuming ionization equilibrium, the code calculates heating and cooling processes of the primordial-composition gas in an ionizing ultraviolet background radiation field.
nway is a source cross-matching tool for arbitrarily many astronomical catalogs. It features Bayesian match probabilities based on astronomical sky coordinates (RA, DEC), works with arbitrarily many catalogs, and can handle varying errors. nway can also incorporate additional prior information, such as the magnitude or color distributions of the sources to match, and works accurately and fast in small areas and all-sky catalogs.
NuRadioMC simulates ultra-high energy neutrino detectors that rely on the radio detection method, which exploits the radio emission generated in the electromagnetic component of a particle shower following a neutrino interaction. The code simulates the neutrino interaction in a medium, subsequent Askaryan radio emission, propagation of the radio signal to the detector and the detector response. NuRadioMC is a Monte Carlo framework that combines flexibility in detector design with user-friendliness. It includes an event generator, improved modeling of the radio emission, a revisited approach to signal propagation, and increased flexibility and precision in the detector simulation.
The NuGrid Python Chemical Evolution Environment (NuPyCEE) simulates the chemical enrichment and stellar feedback of stellar populations. It contains three modules. The Stellar Yields for Galactic Modeling Applications module (SYGMA) models the enrichment and feedback of simple stellar populations which can be included in hydrodynamic simulations and semi-analytic models of galaxies. It is the basic building block of the One-zone Model for the Evolution of GAlaxies (OMEGA, ascl:1806.018) module which models the chemical evolution of galaxies such as the Milky Way and its dwarf satellites. The STELLAB (STELLar ABundances) module provides a library of observed stellar abundances useful for comparing predictions of SYGMA and OMEGA.
NumCosmo is a free software C library whose main purposes are to test cosmological models using observational data and to provide a set of tools to perform cosmological calculations. The software implements three different probes: cosmic microwave background (CMB), supernovae type Ia (SNeIa) and large scale structure (LSS) information, such as baryonic acoustic oscillations (BAO) and galaxy cluster abundance. The code supports a joint analysis of these data and the parameter space can include cosmological and phenomenological parameters. NumCosmo matter power spectrum and CMB codes were written independent of other implementations such as CMBFAST (ascl:9909.004), CAMB (ascl:1102.026), etc.
The library structure simplifies the inclusion of non-standard cosmological models. Besides the functions related to cosmological quantities, this library also implements mathematical and statistical tools. The former were developed to enable the inclusion of other probes and/or theoretical models and to optimize the codes. The statistical framework comprises algorithms which define likelihood functions, minimization, Monte Carlo, Fisher Matrix and profile likelihood methods.
Nulike is software for including full event-level information in likelihood calculations for neutrino telescope searches for dark matter annihilation. It includes both angular and spectral information about neutrino events as well as their total number, and can be used for single models without reference to the rest of a parameter space.
nudec_BSM uses a simplified approach to solve for the neutrino decoupling, allowing one to capture the time dependence of the process while accounting for all possible interactions that can alter it.
NuCraft calculates oscillation probabilities for atmospheric neutrinos, taking into account matter effects and the Earth's atmosphere, and supports an arbitrary number of sterile neutrino flavors with easily configurable continuous Earth models. Continuous modeling of the Earth instead of the often-used approximation of four layers with constant density and consideration of the smearing of baseline lengths due to the variable neutrino production heights in Earth's atmosphere each lead to deviations of 10% or more for conventional neutrinos between 1 and 10 GeV.
NSCool is a 1D (i.e., spherically symmetric) neutron star cooling code written in Fortran 77. The package also contains a series of EOSs (equation of state) to build stars, a series of pre-built stars, and a TOV (Tolman- Oppenheimer-Volkoff) integrator to build stars from an EOS. It can also handle “strange stars” that have a huge density discontinuity between the quark matter and the covering thin baryonic crust. NSCool solves the heat transport and energy balance equations in whole GR, resulting in a time sequence of temperature profiles (and, in particular, a Teff - age curve). Several heating processes are included, and more can easily be incorporated. In particular it can evolve a star undergoing accretion with the resulting deep crustal heating, under a steady or time-variable accretion rate. NSCool is robust, very fast, and highly modular, making it easy to add new subroutines for new processes.
The NOIRLab Source Catalog Generator generates the NOIRLab Source Catalog (NSC), a catalog of all publicly available imagining data in the NOIRLab Astro Data Archive. The second data release (DR2) of the archive contains over 3.9 billion unique objects, 68 billion individual source measurements, covers 35,000 square degrees of the sky, has depths of 23rd magnitude in most broadband filters with 1-2% photometric precision, and astrometric accuracy of 7 mas. NSCG is written in Python and IDL. Three main steps generate the NSC: (1) Source Extractor (ascl:1010.064) is used to detect and measure sources in individual images; (2) astrometrics are calibrated with Gaia DR2 and photometric calibration using large public photometric catalogs such as Pan-STARRS1 and ATLAS-Refcat2; and, (3) measurements are clustered into unique objects, averaging photometric and morphological properties, and calculating proper motions and photometric variability indices.
NRPy+ (Python-based Code generation for Numerical Relativity and Beyond) generates highly-optimized C code from complex tensorial expressions input in Einstein-like notation. NRPy+ uses SymPy as its computer algebra system backend. It is part of the NRPy+/SENR numerical relativity code package for solving Einstein's equations of general relativity to model compact objects at about 1/100 the cost in memory of more traditional, AMR-based numerical relativity codes, thus allowing desktop computers to be used for gravitational wave astrophysics.
NR-code applies nonlinear reconstruction to the dark matter density field in redshift space and solves for the nonlinear mapping from the initial Lagrangian positions to the final redshift space positions; this reverses the large-scale bulk flows and improves the precision measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) scale.
NPTFit is a specialized Python/Cython package that implements Non-Poissonian Template Fitting (NPTF), originally developed for characterizing populations of unresolved point sources. It offers fast evaluation of likelihoods for NPTF analyses and has an easy-to-use interface for performing non-Poissonian (as well as standard Poissonian) template fits using MultiNest (ascl:1109.006) or other inference tools. It allows inclusion of an arbitrary number of point source templates, with an arbitrary number of degrees of freedom in the modeled flux distribution, and has modules for analyzing and plotting the results of an NPTF.
NOVAS is an integrated package of subroutines and functions for computing various commonly needed quantities in positional astronomy. The package can provide, in one or two subroutine or function calls, the instantaneous coordinates of any star or planet in a variety of coordinate systems. At a lower level, NOVAS also supplies astrometric utility transformations, such as those for precession, nutation, aberration, parallax, and the gravitational deflection of light. The computations are accurate to better than one milliarcsecond. The NOVAS package is an easy-to-use facility that can be incorporated into data reduction programs, telescope control systems, and simulations. The U.S. parts of The Astronomical Almanac are prepared using NOVAS. Three editions of NOVAS are available: Fortran, C, and Python.
We have constructed a grid of non-LTE disk models for a wide range of black hole mass and mass accretion rate, for several values of viscosity parameter alpha, and for two extreme values of the black hole spin: the maximum-rotation Kerr black hole, and the Schwarzschild (non-rotating) black hole. Our procedure calculates self-consistently the vertical structure of all disk annuli together with the radiation field, without any approximations imposed on the optical thickness of the disk, and without any ad hoc approximations to the behavior of the radiation intensity. The total spectrum of a disk is computed by summing the spectra of the individual annuli, taking into account the general relativistic transfer function. The grid covers nine values of the black hole mass between M = 1/8 and 32 billion solar masses with a two-fold increase of mass for each subsequent value; and eleven values of the mass accretion rate, each a power of 2 times 1 solar mass/year. The highest value of the accretion rate corresponds to 0.3 Eddington. We show the vertical structure of individual annuli within the set of accretion disk models, along with their local emergent flux, and discuss the internal physical self-consistency of the models. We then present the full disk-integrated spectra, and discuss a number of observationally interesting properties of the models, such as optical/ultraviolet colors, the behavior of the hydrogen Lyman limit region, polarization, and number of ionizing photons. Our calculations are far from definitive in terms of the input physics, but generally we find that our models exhibit rather red optical/UV colors. Flux discontinuities in the region of the hydrogen Lyman limit are only present in cool, low luminosity models, while hotter models exhibit blueshifted changes in spectral slope.
Non-Gaussian Realisations provides code based on a spectral distortion/quantile transformation that generates a realization of a field on a cubic grid that has a specified probability distribution function and a specified power spectrum.
NOD3 processes and analyzes maps from single-dish observations affected by scanning effects from clouds, receiver instabilities, or radio-frequency interference. Its “basket-weaving” tool combines orthogonally scanned maps into a final map that is almost free of scanning effects. A restoration tool for dual-beam observations reduces the noise by a factor of about two compared to the NOD2 version. Combining single-dish with interferometer data in the map plane ensures the full recovery of the total flux density.
NNKCDE is a simple and easily interpretable Conditional Density Estimation (CDE) method. It computes a kernel density estimate of y using the k nearest neighbors of the evaluation point x. The model has only two tuning parameters: the number of nearest neighbors k and the bandwidth h of the smoothing kernel in y-space. Both tuning parameters are chosen in a principled way by minimizing the CDE loss on validation data.
The NIRVANA code is capable of the simulation of multi-scale self-gravitational magnetohydrodynamics problems in three space dimensions employing the technique of adaptive mesh refinement. The building blocks of NIRVANA are (i) a fully conservative, divergence-free Godunov-type central scheme for the solution of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics; (ii) a block-structured mesh refinement algorithm which automatically adds and removes elementary grid blocks whenever necessary to achieve adequate resolution and; (iii) an adaptive mesh Poisson solver based on multigrid philosophy which incorporates the so-called elliptic matching condition to keep the gradient of the gravitational potential continous at fine/coarse mesh interfaces.
Nigraha identifies and evaluates planet candidates from TESS light curves. Using a combination of high signal to noise ratio (SNR) shallow transits, supervised machine learning, and detailed vetting, the neural network-based pipeline identifies planet candidates missed by prior searches. The pipeline runs in four stages. It first performs period finding using the Transit Least Squares (TLS) package and runs sector by sector to build a per-sector catalog. It then transforms the flux values in .fits lightcurve files to global/local views and write out the output in .tfRecords files, builds a model on training data, and saves a checkpoint. Finally, it loads a previously saved model to generate predictions for new sectors. Nigraha provides helper scripts to generate candidates in new sectors, thus allowing others to perform their own analyses.
NIGO (Numerical Integrator of Galactic Orbits) predicts the orbital evolution of test particles moving within a fully-analytical gravitational potential generated by a multi-component galaxy. The code can simulate the orbits of stars in elliptical and disc galaxies, including non-axisymmetric components represented by a spiral pattern and/or rotating bar(s).
Nightfall is an astronomy application for fun, education, and science. It can produce animated views of eclipsing binary stars, calculate synthetic lightcurves and radial velocity curves, and eventually determine the best-fit model for a given set of observational data of an eclipsing binary star system.
Nightfall comes with a user guide and a set of observational data for several eclipsing binary star systems.
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