Results 1051-1100 of 1905 (1875 ASCL, 30 submitted)
ISO transforms MESA history files into a uniform basis for interpolation and then constructs new stellar evolution tracks and isochrones from that basis. It is written in Fortran and requires MESA (ascl:1010.083), primarily for interpolation. Though designed to ingest MESA star history files, tracks from other stellar evolution codes can be incorporated by loading the tracks into the data structures used in the codes.
ISIS, the Interactive Spectral Interpretation System, is designed to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of high resolution X-ray spectra. It is being developed as a programmable, interactive tool for studying the physics of X-ray spectrum formation, supporting measurement and identification of spectral features, and interaction with a database of atomic structure parameters and plasma emission models.
ISIS is a complete package to process CCD images using the image Optimal subtraction method (Alard & Lupton 1998, Alard 1999). The ISIS package can find the best kernel solution even in case of kernel variations as a function of position in the image. The relevant computing time is minimal in this case and is only slightly different from finding constant kernel solutions. ISIS includes as well a number of facilities to compute the light curves of variables objects from the subtracted images. The basic routines required to build the reference frame and make the image registration are also provided in the package.
iSEDfit uses Bayesian inference to extract the physical properties of galaxies from their observed broadband photometric spectral energy distribution (SED). In its default mode, the inputs to iSEDfit are the measured photometry (fluxes and corresponding inverse variances) and a measurement of the galaxy redshift. Alternatively, iSEDfit can be used to estimate photometric redshifts from the input photometry alone.
After the priors have been specified, iSEDfit calculates the marginalized posterior probability distributions for the physical parameters of interest, including the stellar mass, star-formation rate, dust content, star formation history, and stellar metallicity. iSEDfit also optionally computes K-corrections and produces multiple "quality assurance" (QA) plots at each stage of the modeling procedure to aid in the interpretation of the prior parameter choices and subsequent fitting results. The software is distributed as part of the impro IDL suite.
Isca provides a framework for the idealized modeling of the global circulation of planetary atmospheres at varying levels of complexity and realism. Though Isca is an outgrowth of models designed for Earth's atmosphere, it may readily be extended into other planetary regimes. Various forcing and radiation options are available. At the simple end of the spectrum a Held-Suarez case is available. An idealized grey radiation scheme, a grey scheme with moisture feedback, a two-band scheme and a multi-band scheme are also available, all with simple moist effects and astronomically-based solar forcing. At the complex end of the spectrum the framework provides a direct connection to comprehensive atmospheric general circulation models.
ISAP, written in IDL, simplifies the process of visualizing, subsetting, shifting, rebinning, masking, combining scans with weighted means or medians, filtering, and smoothing Auto Analysis Results (AARs) from post-pipeline processing of the Infrared Space Observatory's (ISO) Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) data. It can also be applied to PHOT-S and CAM-CVF data, and data from practically any spectrometer. The result of a typical ISAP session is expected to be a "simple spectrum" (single-valued spectrum which may be resampled to a uniform wavelength separation if desired) that can be further analyzed and measured either with other ISAP functions, native IDL functions, or exported to other analysis package (e.g., IRAF, MIDAS) if desired. ISAP provides many tools for further analysis, line-fitting, and continuum measurements, such as routines for unit conversions, conversions from wavelength space to frequency space, line and continuum fitting, flux measurement, synthetic photometry and models such as a zodiacal light model to predict and subtract the dominant foreground at some wavelengths.
iSAP consists of three programs, written in IDL, which together are useful for spherical data analysis. MR/S (MultiResolution on the Sphere) contains routines for wavelet, ridgelet and curvelet transform on the sphere, and applications such denoising on the sphere using wavelets and/or curvelets, Gaussianity tests and Independent Component Analysis on the Sphere. MR/S has been designed for the PLANCK project, but can be used for many other applications. SparsePol (Polarized Spherical Wavelets and Curvelets) has routines for polarized wavelet, polarized ridgelet and polarized curvelet transform on the sphere, and applications such denoising on the sphere using wavelets and/or curvelets, Gaussianity tests and blind source separation on the Sphere. SparsePol has been designed for the PLANCK project. MS-VSTS (Multi-Scale Variance Stabilizing Transform on the Sphere), designed initially for the FERMI project, is useful for spherical mono-channel and multi-channel data analysis when the data are contaminated by a Poisson noise. It contains routines for wavelet/curvelet denoising, wavelet deconvolution, multichannel wavelet denoising and deconvolution.
IRSFRINGE is an IDL-based GUI package that allows observers to interactively remove fringes from IRS spectra. Fringes that originate from the detector subtrates are observed in the IRS Short-High (SH) and Long-High (LH) modules. In the Long-Low (LL) module, another fringe component is seen as a result of the pre-launch change in one of the LL filters. The fringes in the Short-Low (SL) module are not spectrally resolved. the fringes are already largely removed in the pipeline processing when the flat field is applied. However, this correction is not perfect and remaining fringes can be removed with IRSFRINGE from data in each module. IRSFRINGE is available as a stand-alone package and is also part of the Spectroscopic Modeling, Analysis and Reduction Tool (SMART, ascl:1210.021).
Iris is a downloadable Graphical User Interface (GUI) application which allows the astronomer to build and analyze wide-band Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). The components of Iris have been contributed by members of the VAO. Specview, contributed by STScI, provides a GUI for reading, editing, and displaying SEDs, as well as defining models and parameter values. Sherpa, contributed by the Chandra project at SAO, provides a library of models, fit statistics, and optimization methods; the underlying I/O library, SEDLib, is a VAO product written by SAO to current IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) data model standards. NED is a service provided by IPAC for easy location of data for a given extragalactic source, including SEDs. SedImporter converts non-standard SED data files into a format supported by Iris.
We describe the InfraRed Data Reduction (IRDR) software package, a small ANSI C library of fast image processing routines for automated pipeline reduction of infrared (dithered) observations. We developed the software to satisfy certain design requirements not met in existing packages (e.g., full weight map handling) and to optimize the software for large data sets (non-interactive tasks that are CPU and disk efficient). The software includes stand-alone C programs for tasks such as running sky frame subtraction with object masking, image registration and coaddition with weight maps, dither offset measurement using cross-correlation, and object mask dilation. Although we currently use the software to process data taken with CIRSI (a near-IR mosaic imager), the software is modular and concise and should be easy to adapt/reuse for other work.
The UKIRT IRCAM3 data reduction and analysis software package, IRCAMDR (formerly ircam_clred) analyzes and displays any 2D data image stored in the standard Starlink (ascl:1110.012) NDF data format. It reduces and analyzes IRCAM1/2 data images of 62x58 pixels and IRCAM3 images of 256x256 size. Most of the applications will work on NDF images of any physical (pixel) dimensions, for example, 1024x1024 CCD images can be processed.
IRAS90 is a suite of programs for processing IRAS data. It takes advantage of Starlink's (ascl:1110.012) ADAM environment, which provides multi-platform availability of both data and the programs to process it, and the user friendly interface of the parameter entry system. The suite can determine positions in astrometric coordinates, draw grids, and offers other functions for standard astronomical measurement and standard projections.
IRAF includes a broad selection of programs for general image processing and graphics, plus a large number of programs for the reduction and analysis of optical and IR astronomy data. Other external or layered packages are available for applications such as data acquisition or handling data from other observatories and wavelength regimes such as the Hubble Space Telescope (optical), EUVE (extreme ultra-violet), or ROSAT and AXAF (X-ray). These external packages are distributed separately from the main IRAF distribution but can be easily installed. The IRAF system also includes a complete programming environment for scientific applications, which includes a programmable Command Language scripting facility, the IMFORT Fortran/C programming interface, and the full SPP/VOS programming environment in which the portable IRAF system and all applications are written.
IRACproc is a software suite that facilitates the co-addition of dithered or mapped Spitzer/IRAC data to make them ready for further analysis with application to a wide variety of IRAC observing programs. The software runs within PDL, a numeric extension for Perl available from pdl.perl.org, and as stand alone perl scripts. In acting as a wrapper for the Spitzer Science Center's MOPEX software, IRACproc improves the rejection of cosmic rays and other transients in the co-added data. In addition, IRACproc performs (optional) Point Spread Function (PSF) fitting, subtraction, and masking of saturated stars.
The IRACpm R package applies a 7-8 order distortion correction to IRAC astrometric data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and includes a function for measuring apparent proper motions between different Epochs. These corrections are applicable only to positions measured by APEX; cryogenic images benefit from a correction for varying intra-pixel sensitivity prior to the application of the distortion.
ipole is a ray-tracing code for covariant, polarized radiative transport particularly useful for modeling Event Horizon Telescope sources, though may also be used for other relativistic transport problems. The code extends the ibothros scheme for covariant, unpolarized transport using two representations of the polarized radiation field: in the coordinate frame, it parallel transports the coherency tensor, and in the frame of the plasma, it evolves the Stokes parameters under emission, absorption, and Faraday conversion. The transport step is as spacetime- and coordinate- independent as possible; the emission, absorption, and Faraday conversion step is implemented using an analytic solution to the polarized transport equation with constant coefficients. As a result, ipole is stable, efficient, and produces a physically reasonable solution even for a step with high optical depth and Faraday depth.
ionFR calculates the amount of ionospheric Faraday rotation for a specific epoch, geographic location, and line-of-sight. The code uses a number of publicly available, GPS-derived total electron content maps and the most recent release of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. ionFR can be used for the calibration of radio polarimetric observations; its accuracy had been demonstrated using LOFAR pulsar observations.
InversionKit is an interactive Java program that performs rotational and structural linear inversions from frequency data.
The Beta Inverse code solves the inverse cumulative density function (CDF) of a Beta distribution, allowing one to sample from the Beta prior directly. The Beta distribution is well suited as a prior for the distribution of the orbital eccentricities of extrasolar planets; imposing a Beta prior on orbital eccentricity is valuable for any type of observation of an exoplanet where eccentricity can affect the model parameters (e.g. transits, radial velocities, microlensing, direct imaging). The Beta prior is an excellent description of the current, empirically determined distribution of orbital eccentricities and thus employing it naturally incorporates an observer’s prior experience of what types of orbits are probable or improbable. The default parameters in the code are currently set to the Beta distribution which best describes the entire population of exoplanets with well-constrained orbits.
We describe a novel approach to accelerating Monte Carlo Markov Chains. Our focus is cosmological parameter estimation, but the algorithm is applicable to any problem for which the likelihood surface is a smooth function of the free parameters and computationally expensive to evaluate. We generate a high-order interpolating polynomial for the log-likelihood using the first points gathered by the Markov chains as a training set. This polynomial then accurately computes the majority of the likelihoods needed in the latter parts of the chains. We implement a simple version of this algorithm as a patch (InterpMC) to CosmoMC and show that it accelerates parameter estimatation by a factor of between two and four for well-converged chains. The current code is primarily intended as a "proof of concept", and we argue that there is considerable room for further performance gains. Unlike other approaches to accelerating parameter fits, we make no use of precomputed training sets or special choices of variables, and InterpMC is almost entirely transparent to the user.
InitialConditions finds the initial series solutions for perturbations in our Universe. This includes all scalar (1 adiabatic, 4 isocurvature and 2 magnetic modes), vector (1 vorticity mode, 1 magnetic mode), and tensor (1 gravitational wave mode and 1 magnetic mode) perturbations including terms up to second order in the neutrino mass. It can handle the standard species (cdm, baryons, photons), and two neutrino mass eigenstates (1 light, 1 heavy).
The inhomog library provides Raychaudhuri integration of cosmological domain-wise average scale factor evolution using an analytical formula for kinematical backreaction Q_D evolution. The inhomog main program illustrates biscale examples. The library routine lib/Omega_D_precalc.c is callable by RAMSES (ascl:1011.007) using the RAMSES extension ramses-scalav.
Inflation is a numerical code to generate power spectra and other observables through numerical solutions to flow equations. The code generates tensor and scalar power spectra as a function of wavenumber and various other parameters at specific wavenumbers of interest (such as for CMB, scalar perturbations at smaller scales, gravitational wave detection at direct detection frequencies). The output can be easily ported to publicly available Markov Chain codes to constrain cosmological parameters with data.
Infall is a code for calculating the mean initial and final density profiles around a virialized dark matter halo. The initial profile is derived from the statistics of the initial Gaussian random field, accounting for the problem of peaks within peaks using the extended Press-Schechter model. Spherical collapse then yields the typical density and velocity profiles of the gas and dark matter that surrounds the final, virialized halo. In additional to the mean profile, ±1-σ profiles are calculated and can be used as an estimate of the scatter.
The efficiency of thin disk accretion onto black holes depends on the inner boundary condition, specifically the torque applied to the disk at the last stable orbit. This is usually assumed to vanish. This code estimates the torque on a magnetized disk using a steady magnetohydrodynamic inflow model originally developed by Takahashi et al. The efficiency e can depart significantly from the classical thin disk value. In some cases e > 1, i.e., energy is extracted from the black hole.
Indri models the population of single (not in binary or hierarchical systems) neutron stars. Given a starting distribution of parameters (birth place, velocity, magnetic field, and period), the code moves a set of stars through the time (by evolving spin period and magnetic field) and the space (by propagating through the Galactic potential). Upon completion of the evolution, a set of observables is computed (radio flux, position, dispersion measure) and compared with a radio survey such as the Parkes Multibeam Survey. The models' parameters are optimised by using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique.
This program measures line-strength indices in fully calibrated FITS spectra. By "fully calibrated" one should understand wavelength and relative flux-calibrated data. Note that the different types of line-strength indices that can be measured with indexf (see below) do not require absolute flux calibration. If even a relative flux-calibration is absent (or deficient), the derived indices should be transformed to an appropriate spectrophotometric system. The program can also compute index errors resulting from the propagation of random errors (e.g. photon statistics, read-out noise). This option is only available if the user provides the error spectrum as an additional input FITS file to indexf. The error spectrum must contain the unbiased standard deviation (and not the variance!) for each pixel of the data spectrum. In addition, indexf also estimates the effect of errors on radial velocity. For this purpose, the program performs Monte Carlo simulations by measuring each index using randomly drawn radial velocities (following a Gaussian distribution of a given standard deviation). If no error file is employed, the program can perform numerical simulations with synthetic error spectra, the latter generated from the original data spectra and assuming randomly generated S/N ratios.
Aperture masking interferometric data analysis involves measuring phases and amplitudes of fringes formed by interference between holes in the pupil mask. These fringe observables can be measured by computing an analytic model of the point spread function and fitting the relevant set of spatial frequencies directly in the image plane, without recourse to numerical Fourier transforms. The ImPlaneIA pipeline converts aperture masking images to fringe observables by fitting fringes in the image plane, calibrates data from a target of interest with one or more point source calibrators, and contains some basic model-fitting routines. The pipeline can accept different mask geometries, instruments, and observing modes.
ImpactModel, written in Cython, computes the accretion disc impact spectrum at given frequencies and can compute other model quantities as a function of time.
This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.
Imift is an open-source astronomical image-fitting program specialized for galaxies but potentially useful for other sources, which is fast, flexible, and highly extensible. Its object-oriented design allows new types of image components (2D surface-brightness functions) to be easily written and added to the program. Image functions provided with Imfit include Sersic, exponential, and Gaussian galaxy decompositions along with Core-Sersic and broken-exponential profiles, elliptical rings, and three components that perform line-of-sight integration through 3D luminosity-density models of disks and rings seen at arbitrary inclinations.
Available minimization algorithms include Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead simplex, and Differential Evolution, allowing trade-offs between speed and decreased sensitivity to local minima in the fit landscape. Minimization can be done using the standard chi^2 statistic (using either data or model values to estimate per-pixel Gaussian errors, or else user-supplied error images) or the Cash statistic; the latter is particularly appropriate for cases of Poisson data in the low-count regime.
The C++ source code for Imfit is available under the GNU Public License.
IMCOM allows for careful treatment of aliasing in undersampled imaging data and can be used to test the feasibility of multi-exposure observing strategies for space-based survey missions. IMCOM can also been used to explore focal plane undersampling for an optical space mission such as Euclid.
The IMCAT software was developed initially to do faint galaxy photometry for weak lensing studies, and provides a fairly complete set of tools for this kind of work. Unlike most packages for doing data analysis, the tools are standalone unix commands which you can invoke from the shell, via shell scripts or from perl scripts. The tools are arranges in a tree of directories. One main branch is the ’imtools’. These deal only with fits files. The most important imtool is the ’image calculator’ ’ic’ which allows one to do rather general operations on fits images. A second branch is the ’catools’ which operate only on catalogues. The key cattool is ’lc’; this effectively defines the format of IMCAT catalogues, and allows one to do very general operations on and filtering of such catalogues. A third branch is the ’imcattools’. These tend to be much more specialised than the cattools and imcattools and are focussed on faint galaxy photometry.
IMAGINE (Interstellar MAGnetic field INference Engine) performs inference on generic parametric models of the Galaxy. The modular open source framework uses highly optimized tools and technology such as the MultiNest sampler (ascl:1109.006) and the information field theory framework NIFTy (ascl:1302.013) to create an instance of the Milky Way based on a set of parameters for physical observables, using Bayesian statistics to judge the mismatch between measured data and model prediction. The flexibility of the IMAGINE framework allows for simple refitting for newly available data sets and makes state-of-the-art Bayesian methods easily accessible particularly for random components of the Galactic magnetic field.
ImageJ is a public domain Java image processing program inspired by NIH Image. It can display, edit, analyze, process, save and print 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit images. It can read many image formats including TIFF, GIF, JPEG, BMP, DICOM, FITS and "raw". It supports "stacks", a series of images that share a single window. It is multithreaded, so time-consuming operations such as image file reading can be performed in parallel with other operations.
ImageHealth (IH) is a c program that makes use of standard CFITSIO routines to examine, in an automated fashion, .FITS images with any number of extensions, find objects within those images, and determine basic parameters of those images (stellar flux, background counts, FWHM, and ellipticity, along with sky background counts) in order to provide a snapshot of the quality of those images. A variety of python wrappers have also been written to test large numbers of such images and compare the results of ImageHealth to other image analysis programs, such as SourceExtractor. Additional IH-related tools will be made available in the future.
Efforts are now focused on an implementation of IH specifically for the Dark Energy Camera; we do not envision providing support for the instrument-independent version of the code offered here though comments, questions, and feedback are welcome.
Im3shape forward-fits a galaxy model to each data image it is supplied with and reports the parameters of the best fitting model, including the ellipticity components. It uses the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) to render images of convolved galaxy profiles, calculates the maximum likelihood parameter values, and corrects for noise bias. IM3SHAPE is a modular C code with a significant amount of Python glue code to enable setting up new models and their options automatically.
im2shape is a Bayesian approach to the problem of accurate measurement of galaxy ellipticities for weak lensing studies, in particular cosmic shear. im2shape parameterizes galaxies as sums of Gaussians, convolved with a psf which is also a sum of Gaussians. The uncertainties in the output parameters are calculated using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach.
IIPImage is an advanced high-performance feature-rich image server system that enables online access to full resolution floating point (as well as other bit depth) images at terabyte scales. Paired with the VisiOmatic (ascl:1408.010) celestial image viewer, the system can comfortably handle gigapixel size images as well as advanced image features such as both 8, 16 and 32 bit depths, CIELAB colorimetric images and scientific imagery such as multispectral images. Streaming is tile-based, which enables viewing, navigating and zooming in real-time around gigapixel size images. Source images can be in either TIFF or JPEG2000 format. Whole images or regions within images can also be rapidly and dynamically resized and exported by the server from a single source image without the need to store multiple files in various sizes.
IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.
This document describes the publically available numerical code "IGMtransfer", capable of performing intergalactic radiative transfer (RT) of light in the vicinity of the Lyman alpha (Lya) line. Calculating the RT in a (possibly adaptively refined) grid of cells resulting from a cosmological simulation, the code returns 1) a "transmission function", showing how the intergalactic medium (IGM) affects the Lya line at a given redshift, and 2) the "average transmission" of the IGM, making it useful for studying the results of reionization simulations.
We present a suite of IDL routines to interactively run GALFIT whereby the various surface brightness profiles (and their associated parameters) are represented by regions, which the User is expected to place. The regions may be saved and/or loaded from the ASCII format used by ds9 or in the Hierarchical Data Format (version 5). The software has been tested to run stably on Mac OS X and Linux with IDL 7.0.4. In addition to its primary purpose of modeling galaxy images with GALFIT, this package has several ancillary uses, including a flexible image display routines, several basic photometry functions, and qualitatively assessing Source Extractor. We distribute the package freely and without any implicit or explicit warranties, guarantees, or assurance of any kind. We kindly ask users to report any bugs, errors, or suggestions to us directly (as opposed to fixing them themselves) to ensure version control and uniformity.
IFSRED is a general-purpose library for reducing data from integral field spectrographs (IFSs). For a general IFS data cube, it contains IDL routines to: (1) find and apply a zero-point shift in a wavelength solution on a spaxel-by-spaxel basis, using sky lines; (2) find the spatial coordinates of a flux peak; (3) empirically correct for differential atmospheric refraction; (4) mosaic dithered exposures; (5) (integer) rebin; and (6) apply a telluric correction. A sky-subtraction routine for data from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph and Imager (GMOS) that can be easily modified for any instrument is also included. IFSRED also contains additional software specific to reducing data from GMOS and the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS).
IFSFIT is a general-purpose IDL library for fitting the continuum, emission lines, and absorption lines in integral field spectra. It uses PPXF (ascl:1210.002) to find the best fit stellar continuum (using a user-defined library of stellar templates and including additive polynomials), or optionally a user-defined method to find the best fit continuum. It uses MPFIT (ascl:1208.019) to simultaneously fit Gaussians to any number of emission lines and emission line velocity components. It will also fit the NaI D feature using analytic absorption and/or emission-line profiles.
IFrIT (Ionization FRont Interactive Tool) is a powerful general purpose visualization tool that can be used to visualize 3-dimensional data sets. IFrIT is written in C++ and is based on the Visualization ToolKit (VTK) and, optionally, uses a GUI toolkit Qt. IFrIT can visualize scalar, vector field, tensor, and particle data. Several visualization windows can exist at the same time, each one having a full set of visualization objects. Some visualization windows can share the data between them, while other windows can be fully independent. Images from several visualization windows can be combined into one image file on the disk, tiling some windows together, and inserting reduced versions of some windows into larger other windows. A large array of features is also available, including highly advanced animation capabilities, a complex set of lights, markers to label various points in space, and a capability to "pick" a point in the scene and retrieve information about the data at this location.
IEHI, written in Fortran, outputs a simple "coronal" ionization equilibrium (i.e., collisional ionization and auto-ionization balanced by radiative and dielectronic recombination) for a plasma at a given electron temperature.
Spectrum created by energy release in the early Universe, before recombination, creates distortions which are a superposition of μ-type, y-type and intermediate-type distortions. The final spectrum can thus be constructed from the templates, once energy injection rate as a function of redshift is known. This package contains the templates spaced at dy=0.001 for y<1 and dy=0.01 for y>1 covering a range 0.001 < y < 10. Also included is a Mathematica code which can combine these templates for user-defined rate of energy injection as a function of redshift. Silk damping, particle decay and annihilation examples are also included.
Using a combination of self-consistent and test-particle techniques, Identikit 1 provided a way to vary the initial geometry of a galactic collision and instantly visualize the outcome. Identikit 2 uses the same techniques to define a mapping from the current morphology and kinematics of a tidal encounter back to the initial conditions. By requiring that various regions along a tidal feature all originate from a single disc with a unique orientation, this mapping can be used to derive the initial collision geometry. In addition, Identikit 2 offers a robust way to measure how well a particular model reproduces the morphology and kinematics of a pair of interacting galaxies. A set of eight self-consistent simulations is used to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to search a ten-dimensional parameter space and find near-optimal matches; all eight systems are successfully reconstructed.
By combining test-particle and self-consistent techniques, we have developed a method to rapidly explore the parameter space of galactic encounters. Our method, implemented in an interactive graphics program, can be used to find the parameters required to reproduce the observed morphology and kinematics of interacting disk galaxies. We test this system on an artificial data-set of 36 equal-mass merging encounters, and show that it is usually possible to reproduce the morphology and kinematics of these encounters and that a good match strongly constrains the encounter parameters.
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