Results 201-300 of 3034 (2961 ASCL, 73 submitted)
ATLAS performs the tracking, projecting, power-spectrum-making, and ring-fitting needed to turn a set of Dopplergram images into a set of frequency shift measurements. This code is essentially a combination of three codes, FRACK (FORTRAN Tracking), PSPEC (Power SPECtrum), and MRF (Multi-Ridge Fitting), included in the ATLAS package. ATLAS reads in a list of longitude/latitude coordinates corresponding to the desired tile centers and a set of full-disk Dopplergram images and outputs frequency shift measurements from each wave mode of each tile. The code relies on both distributed-memory (MPI) and shared-memory (OpenMP) parallelism to scale up to around 1000 processes. Due to the immense volume of data produced by the tracking and projecting steps, the intermediate data products (tiles, power spectra) are never written out.
ATLAS12 is an opacity sampling model atmosphere program to allow computation of models with individual abundances using line data. ATLAS12 is able to compute the same models as ATLAS9 which uses pretabulated opacities, plus models with arbitrary abundances. ATLAS12 sampled fluxes are quite accurate for predicting the total flux except in the intermediate or narrow bandpass intervals because the sample size is too small.
For a massless test particle and given a planetary system, Atlas2bgeneral calculates all resonances in a given range of semimajor axes with all the planets taken one by one. Planets are assumed in fixed circular and coplanar orbits and the test particle with arbitrary orbit. A sample input data file to calculate the two-body resonances is available for use with the Fortran77 source code.
For a massless test particle and given a planetary system, atlas3bgeneral calculates all three body resonances in a given range of semimajor axes with all the planets taken by pairs. Planets are assumed in fixed circular and coplanar orbits and the test particle with arbitrary orbit. A sample input data file to calculate the three-body resonances is available for use with the Fortran77 source code.
ATLAS9 computes model atmospheres using a fixed set of pretabulated opacities, allowing one to work on huge numbers of stars and interpolate in large grids of models to determine parameters quickly. The code works with two different sets of opacity distribution functions (ODFs), one with “big” wavelength intervals covering the whole spectrum and the other with 1221 “little” wavelength intervals covering the whole spectrum. The ODFs use a 12-step representation; the radiation field is computed starting with the highest step and working down. If a lower step does not matter because the line opacity is small relative to the continuum at all depths, all the lower steps are lumped together and not computed to save time.
Atmos contains two atmospheric models and scripts to couple them together. One atmospheric model calculates the profiles of chemical species, including both gaseous and aerosol phases, and the second model calculates the temperature profile. Because these profiles depend on each other - kinetic reaction rates are temperature-dependent and radiative transfer is subject to radiatively active gases - atmos alternates the running of these two models until both models have solutions consistent with the other one. While either of these models can be run with time-dependence, most applications of these models are to find steady-state solutions for the atmosphere that would be stable over long (geological/astronomical) time periods, given constant inputs to the atmosphere.
Atmospheric Athena simulates hydrodynamic escape from close-in giant planets in 3D. It uses the Athena hydrodynamics code (ascl:1010.014) with a new ionizing radiative transfer implementation to self-consistently model photoionization driven winds from the planet. The code is fully compatible with static mesh refinement and MPI parallelization and can handle arbitrary planet potentials and stellar initial conditions.
atoMEC simulates high energy density phenomena such as in warm dense matter. It uses Kohn-Sham density functional theory, in combination with an average-atom approximation, to solve the electronic structure problem for single-element materials at finite temperature.
The ATOOLS package of applications provides an interface to the AST library (ascl:1404.016), allowing quick experiments to be performed from the shell. It manipulates descriptions of coordinate frames and mappings in the form of AST objects and performs other functions, with each application within the package corresponding closely to one of the functions in the AST library.
ATV displays and analyses astronomical images using the IDL image-processing language. It allows interactive control of the image scaling, color table, color stretch, and zoom, with support for world coordinate systems. It also does point-and-click aperture photometry, simple spectral extractions, and can produce publication-quality postscript output images.
AUM predicts galaxy abundances, their clustering, and the galaxy-galaxy lensing signal, given the halo occupation distribution of galaxies and the underlying cosmological model. In combination with the measurements of the clustering, abundance, and lensing of galaxies, these routines can be used to perform cosmological parameter inference.
Auto-multithresh implements an automated masking algorithm for clean. It operates on the residual image within the minor cycle of clean to identify and mask regions of significant emission. It then cascades these significant regions down to lower signal to noise. It includes features to pad the mask to avoid sharp edges and to remove small regions that are unlikely to be significant emission. The algorithm described by this code was incorporated into the tclean task within CASA as auto-multithresh.
Autoastrom performs automated astrometric corrections on an astronomical image by automatically detecting objects in the frame, retrieving a reference catalogue, cross correlating the catalog with CCDPACK (ascl:1403.021) or MATCH, and using the ASTROM (ascl:1406.008) application to calculate a correction. It is distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).
AutoBayes automatically generates customized algorithms from compact, declarative specifications in the data analysis domain, taking a statistical model as input and creating documented and optimized C/C++ code. The synthesis process uses Bayesian networks to enable problem decompositions and guide the algorithm derivation. Program schemas encapsulate advanced algorithms and data structures, and a symbolic-algebraic system finds closed-form solutions for problems and emerging subproblems. AutoBayes has been used to analyze planetary nebulae images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, and can be applied to other scientific data analysis tasks.
Automark models photon counts collected form observation of variable-intensity astronomical sources. It aims to mark the abrupt changes in the corresponding wavelength distribution of the emission automatically. In the underlying methodology, change points are embedded into a marked Poisson process, where photon wavelengths are regarded as marks and both the Poisson intensity parameter and the distribution of the marks are allowed to change.
AutoProf performs basic and advanced non-parametric galaxy image analysis. The pipeline's design allows for fast startup and easy implementation; the package offers a suite of robust default and optional tools for surface brightness profile extractions and related methods. AUTOPROF is highly extensible and can be adapted for a variety of applications, providing flexibility for exploring new ideas and supporting advanced users.
AutoSourceID-Light (ASID-L) analyzes optical imaging data using computer vision techniques that can naturally deal with large amounts of data. The framework rapidly and reliably localizes sources in optical images.
AUTOSPEC provides fast, automated extraction of high quality 1D spectra from astronomical datacubes with minimal user effort. AutoSpec takes an integral field unit (IFU) datacube and a simple parameter file in order to extract a 1D spectra for each object in a supplied catalogue. A custom designed cross-correlation algorithm improves signal to noise as well as isolates sources from neighboring contaminants.
AUTOSTRUCTURE calculates atomic and ionic energy levels, radiative rates, autoionization rates, photoionization cross sections, plane-wave Born and distorted-wave excitation cross sections in LS- and intermediate-coupling using non- or (kappa-averaged) relativistic wavefunctions. These can then be further processed to form Auger yields, fluorescence yields, partial and total dielectronic and radiative recombination cross sections and rate coefficients, photoabsorption cross sections, and monochromatic opacities, among other properties.
Avocado produces classifications of arbitrary astronomical transients and variable objects. It addresses the problem of biased spectroscopic samples by generating many lightcurves from each object in the original spectroscopic sample at a variety of redshifts and with many different observing conditions. The "augmented" samples of lightcurves that are generated are much more representative of the full datasets than the original spectroscopic samples.
aXe is a spectroscopic data extraction software package that was designed to handle large format spectroscopic slitless images such as those from the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on HST. aXe is a PyRAF/IRAF package that consists of several tasks and is distributed as part of the Space Telescope Data Analysis System (STSDAS). The various aXe tasks perform specific parts of the extraction and calibration process and are successively used to produce extracted spectra.
AxionNS computes radio light curves resulting from the resonant conversion of Axion dark matter into photons within the magnetosphere of a neutron star. Photon trajectories are traced from the observer to the magnetosphere where a root finding algorithm identifies the regions of resonant conversion. Given the modeling of the axion dark matter distribution and conversion probability, one can compute the photon flux emitted from these regions. The individual contributions from all the trajectories is then summed to obtain the radiated photon power per unit solid angle.
aztekas solves hyperbolic partial differential equations in conservative form using High Resolution Shock-Capturing (HRSC) schemes. The code can solve the non-relativistic and relativistic hydrodynamic equations of motion (Euler equations) for a perfect fluid. The relativistic part can solve these equations on a background fixed metric, such as for Schwarzschild, Minkowski, Kerr-Schild, and others.
BACCHUS (Brussels Automatic Code for Characterizing High accUracy Spectra) derives stellar parameters (Teff, log g, metallicity, microturbulence velocity and rotational velocity), equivalent widths, and abundances. The code includes on the fly spectrum synthesis, local continuum normalization, estimation of local S/N, automatic line masking, four methods for abundance determinations, and a flagging system aiding line selection. BACCHUS relies on the grid of MARCS model atmospheres, Masseron's model atmosphere thermodynamic structure interpolator, and the radiative transfer code Turbospectrum (ascl:1205.004).
BAGEMASS calculates the posterior probability distribution for the mass and age of a star from its observed mean density and other observable quantities using a grid of stellar models that densely samples the relevant parameter space. It is written in Fortran and requires FITSIO (ascl:1010.001).
Bagpipes generates realistic model galaxy spectra and fits these to spectroscopic and photometric observations.
The Balrog package of Python simulation code is for use with real astronomical imaging data. Objects are simulated into a survey's images and measurement software is run over the simulated objects' images. Balrog allows the user to derive the mapping between what is actually measured and the input truth. The package uses GalSim (ascl:1402.009) for all object simulations; source extraction and measurement is performed by SExtractor (ascl:1010.064). Balrog facilitates the ease of running these codes en masse over many images, automating useful GalSim and SExtractor functionality, as well as filling in many bookkeeping steps along the way.
BALRoGO (Bayesian Astrometric Likelihood Recovery of Galactic Objects) handles data from the Gaia space mission. It extracts galactic objects such as globular clusters and dwarf galaxies from data contaminated by interlopers using a combination of Bayesian and non-Bayesian approaches. It fits proper motion space, surface density, and the object center. It also provides confidence regions for the color-magnitude diagram and parallaxes.
BAMBI (Blind Accelerated Multimodal Bayesian Inference) is a Bayesian inference engine that combines the benefits of SkyNet (ascl:1312.007) with MultiNest (ascl:1109.006). It operated by simultaneously performing Bayesian inference using MultiNest and learning the likelihood function using SkyNet. Once SkyNet has learnt the likelihood to sufficient accuracy, inference finishes almost instantaneously.
bamr is an MPI implementation of a Bayesian analysis of neutron star mass and radius data that determines the mass versus radius curve and the equation of state of dense matter. Written in C++, bamr provides some EOS models. This code requires O2scl (ascl:1408.019) be installed before compilation.
Bandmerge takes in ASCII tables of positions and fluxes of detected astronomical sources in 2-7 different wavebands, and write out a single table of the merged data. The tool was designed to work with source lists generated by the Spitzer Science Center's MOPEX (ascl:1111.006) software, although it can be "fooled" into running on other data as well.
BANG (BAyesian decomposiotioN of Galaxies) models both the photometry and kinematics of galaxies. The underlying model is the superposition of different components with three possible combinations: 1.) Bulge + inner disc + outer disc + Halo; 2.) Bulge + disc + Halo; and 3.) inner disc + outer disc + Halo. As CPU parameter estimation can take days, running BANG on GPU is recommended.
BANYAN_Sigma calculates the membership probability that a given astrophysical object belongs to one of the currently known 27 young associations within 150 pc of the Sun, using Bayesian inference. This tool uses the sky position and proper motion measurements of an object, with optional radial velocity (RV) and distance (D) measurements, to derive a Bayesian membership probability. By default, the priors are adjusted such that a probability threshold of 90% will recover 50%, 68%, 82% or 90% of true association members depending on what observables are input (only sky position and proper motion, with RV, with D, with both RV and D, respectively). The algorithm is implemented in a Python package, in IDL, and is also implemented as an interactive web page.
BANZAI (Beautiful Algorithms to Normalize Zillions of Astronomical Images) processes raw data taken from Las Cumbres Observatory and produces science quality data products. It is capable of reducing single or multi-extension fits files. For historical data, BANZAI can also reduce the data cubes that were produced by the Sinistro cameras.
baobab generates images of strongly-lensed systems, given some configurable prior distributions over the parameters of the lens and light profiles as well as configurable assumptions about the instrument and observation conditions. Wrapped around lenstronomy (ascl:1804.012), baobab supports prior distributions ranging from artificially simple to empirical. A major use case for baobab is the generation of training and test sets for hierarchical inference using Bayesian neural networks (BNNs); the code can generate the training and test sets using different priors.
baofit analyzes cosmological correlation functions to estimate parameters related to baryon acoustic oscillations and redshift-space distortions. It has primarily been used to analyze Lyman-alpha forest autocorrelations and cross correlations with the quasar number density in BOSS data. Fit models are fully three-dimensional and include flexible treatments of redshift-space distortions, anisotropic non-linear broadening, and broadband distortions.
Using the 2-point correlation function, BAOlab aids the study of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). The code generates a model-dependent covariance matrix which can change the results both for BAO detection and for parameter constraints.
BAOlab is an image processing package written in C that should run on nearly any UNIX system with just the standard C libraries. It reads and writes images in standard FITS format; 16- and 32-bit integer as well as 32-bit floating-point formats are supported. Multi-extension FITS files are currently not supported. Among its tools are ishape for size measurements of compact sources, mksynth for generating synthetic images consisting of a background signal including Poisson noise and a number of pointlike sources, imconvol for convolving two images (a “source” and a “kernel”) with each other using fast fourier transforms (FFTs) and storing the output as a new image, and kfit2d for fitting a two-dimensional King model to an image.
Barcode (BAyesian Reconstruction of COsmic DEnsity fields) samples the primordial density fields compatible with a set of dark matter density tracers after cosmic evolution observed in redshift space. It uses a redshift space model based on the analytic solution of coherent flows within a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo posterior sampling of the primordial density field; this method is applicable to analytically derivable structure formation models, such as the Zel'dovich approximation, but also higher order schemes such as augmented Lagrangian perturbation theory or even particle mesh models. The algorithm is well-suited for analysis of the dark matter cosmic web implied by the observed spatial distribution of galaxy clusters, such as obtained from X-ray, SZ or weak lensing surveys, as well as that of the intergalactic medium sampled by the Lyman alpha forest. In these cases, virialized motions are negligible and the tracers cannot be modeled as point-like objects. Barcode can be used in all of these contexts as a baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction algorithm.
Barry compares different BAO models. It removes as many barriers and complications to BAO model fitting as possible and allows each component of the process to remain independent, allowing for detailed comparisons of individual parts. It contains datasets, model fitting tools, and model implementations incorporating different descriptions of non-linear physics and algorithms for isolating the BAO (Baryon Acoustic Oscillation) feature.
BART implements a Bayesian, Monte Carlo-driven, radiative-transfer scheme for extracting parameters from spectra of planetary atmospheres. BART combines a thermochemical-equilibrium code, a one-dimensional line-by-line radiative-transfer code, and the Multi-core Markov-chain Monte Carlo statistical module to constrain the atmospheric temperature and chemical-abundance profiles of exoplanets.
BARYCORR is a Python interface for ZBARYCORR (ascl:1807.017); it requires the measured redshift and returns the corrected barycentric velocity and time correction.
barycorrpy (BCPy) is a Python implementation of Wright and Eastman's 2014 code (ascl:1807.017) that calculates precise barycentric corrections well below the 1 cm/s level. This level of precision is required in the search for 1 Earth mass planets in the Habitable Zones of Sun-like stars by the Radial Velocity (RV) method, where the maximum semi-amplitude is about 9 cm/s. BCPy was developed for the pipeline for the next generation Doppler Spectrometers - Habitable-zone Planet Finder (HPF) and NEID. An automated leap second management routine improves upon the one available in Astropy. It checks for and downloads a new leap second file before converting from the UT time scale to TDB. The code also includes a converter for JDUTC to BJDTDB.
BASCS models spatial and spectral information from overlapping sources and the background, and jointly estimates all individual source parameters. The use of spectral information improves the detection of both faint and closely overlapping sources and increases the accuracy with which source parameters are inferred.
The BASE-9 (Bayesian Analysis for Stellar Evolution with nine variables) software suite recovers star cluster and stellar parameters from photometry and is useful for analyzing single-age, single-metallicity star clusters, binaries, or single stars, and for simulating such systems. BASE-9 uses a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique along with brute force numerical integration to estimate the posterior probability distribution for the age, metallicity, helium abundance, distance modulus, line-of-sight absorption, and parameters of the initial-final mass relation (IFMR) for a cluster, and for the primary mass, secondary mass (if a binary), and cluster probability for every potential cluster member. The MCMC technique is used for the cluster quantities (the first six items listed above) and numerical integration is used for the stellar quantities (the last three items in the above list).
BASE is a novel program for the combined or separate Bayesian analysis of astrometric and radial-velocity measurements of potential exoplanet hosts and binary stars. The tool fulfills two major tasks of exoplanet science, namely the detection of exoplanets and the characterization of their orbits. BASE was developed to provide the possibility of an integrated Bayesian analysis of stellar astrometric and Doppler-spectroscopic measurements with respect to their binary or planetary companions’ signals, correctly treating the astrometric measurement uncertainties and allowing to explore the whole parameter space without the need for informative prior constraints. The tool automatically diagnoses convergence of its Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler to the posterior and regularly outputs status information. For orbit characterization, BASE delivers important results such as the probability densities and correlations of model parameters and derived quantities. BASE is a highly configurable command-line tool developed in Fortran 2008 and compiled with GFortran. Options can be used to control the program’s behaviour and supply information such as the stellar mass or prior information. Any option can be supplied in a configuration file and/or on the command line.
BASIN (Beowulf Analysis Symbolic INterface) is a flexible, integrated suite of tools for multiuser parallel data analysis and visualization that allows researchers to harness the power of Beowulf PC clusters and multi-processor machines without necessarily being experts in parallel programming. It also includes general tools for data distribution and parallel operations on distributed data for developing libraries for specific tasks.
BASTA determines properties of stars using a pre-computed grid of stellar models. It calculates the probability density function of a given stellar property based on a set of observational constraints defined by the user. BASTA is very versatile and has been used in a large variety of studies requiring robust determination of fundamental stellar properties.
batman provides fast calculation of exoplanet transit light curves and supports calculation of light curves for any radially symmetric stellar limb darkening law. It uses an integration algorithm for models that cannot be quickly calculated analytically, and in typical use, the batman Python package can calculate a million model light curves in well under ten minutes for any limb darkening profile.
Bayesian Technique for Multi-image Analysis (BaTMAn) characterizes any astronomical dataset containing spatial information and performs a tessellation based on the measurements and errors provided as input. The algorithm iteratively merges spatial elements as long as they are statistically consistent with carrying the same information (i.e. identical signal within the errors). The output segmentations successfully adapt to the underlying spatial structure, regardless of its morphology and/or the statistical properties of the noise. BaTMAn identifies (and keeps) all the statistically-significant information contained in the input multi-image (e.g. an IFS datacube). The main aim of the algorithm is to characterize spatially-resolved data prior to their analysis.
BAYES-LOSVD performs non-parametric extraction of the Line-Of-Sight Velocity Distributions in galaxies. Written in Python, it uses Stan (ascl:1801.003) to perform all the computations and provides reliable uncertainties for all the parameters of the model chosen for the fit. The code comes with a large number of features, including read-in routines for some of the most popular IFU spectrographs and surveys, such as ATLAS3D, CALIFA, MaNGA, MUSE-WFM, SAMI, and SAURON.
The great majority of X-ray measurements of cluster masses in the literature assume parametrized functional forms for the radial distribution of two independent cluster thermodynamic properties, such as electron density and temperature, to model the X-ray surface brightness. These radial profiles (e.g. β-model) have an amplitude normalization parameter and two or more shape parameters. BAYES-X uses a cluster model to parametrize the radial X-ray surface brightness profile and explore the constraints on both model parameters and physical parameters. Bayes-X is programmed in Fortran and uses MultiNest (ascl:1109.006) as the Bayesian inference engine.
Bayesfit pulls together Tempo2 (ascl:1210.015) and MultiNest (ascl:1109.006) components to provide additional functionality such as the specification of priors; Nelder–Mead optimization of the maximum-posterior point; and the capability of computing the partially marginalized likelihood for a given subset of timing-model parameters. Bayesfit is a single python command-line application.
BayesFlare identifies flaring events in light curves released by the Kepler mission; it identifies even weak events by making use of the flare signal shape. The package contains functions to perform Bayesian hypothesis testing comparing the probability of light curves containing flares to that of them containing noise (or non-flare-like) artifacts. BayesFlare includes functions in its amplitude-marginalizer suite to account for underlying sinusoidal variations in light curve data; it includes such variations in the signal model, and then analytically marginalizes over them.
Bayesian Blocks is a time-domain algorithm for detecting localized structures (bursts), revealing pulse shapes within bursts, and generally characterizing intensity variations. The input is raw time series data, in almost any form. Three data modes are elaborated: (1) time-tagged events, (2) binned counts, and (3) measurements at arbitrary times with normal errors. The output is the most probable segmentation of the observation interval into sub-intervals during which the signal is perceptibly constant, i.e. has no statistically significant variations. The idea is not that the source is deemed to actually have this discontinuous, piecewise constant form, rather that such an approximate and generic model is often useful. Treatment of data gaps, variable exposure, extension to piecewise linear and piecewise exponential representations, multi-variate time series data, analysis of variance, data on the circle, other data modes, and dispersed data are included.
This implementation is exact and replaces the greedy, approximate, and outdated algorithm implemented in BLOCK.
Bayesian SZNet predicts spectroscopic redshift through use of a Bayesian convolutional network. It uses Monte Carlo dropout to associate predictions with predictive uncertainties, allowing the user to determine unusual or problematic spectra for visual inspection and thresholding to balance between the number of incorrect redshift predictions and coverage.
BayesicFitting fits models to data. Data in this context means a set of (measured) points x and y. The model provides some (mathematical) relation between the x and y. Fitting adapts the model such that certain criteria are optimized. The BayesicFitting toolbox also determines whether one model fits the data better than another, making the toolbox particularly powerful. The package consists of more than 100 Python classes, of which one third are model classes. Another third are fitters in one guise or another along with additional tools, and the remaining third is used for Nested Sampling.
BayesVP offers a Bayesian approach for modeling Voigt profiles in absorption spectroscopy. The code fits the absorption line profiles within specified wavelength ranges and generates posterior distributions for the column density, Doppler parameter, and redshifts of the corresponding absorbers. The code uses publicly available efficient parallel sampling packages to sample posterior and thus can be run on parallel platforms. BayesVP supports simultaneous fitting for multiple absorption components in high-dimensional parameter space. The package includes additional utilities such as explicit specification of priors of model parameters, continuum model, Bayesian model comparison criteria, and posterior sampling convergence check.
BAYGAUD (BAYesian GAUssian Decomposer) implements the decomposition of velocity profiles in a data cube and subsequent classification. It uses MultiNest (ascl:1109.006) for calculating the posterior distribution and the evidence for a given likelihood function. The code models a given line profile with an optimal number of Gaussians based on the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. BAYGAUD is parallelized using the Message-Passing Interface (MPI) standard, which reduces the time needed to calculate the evidence using MCMC techniques.
BCcodes computes bolometric corrections and synthetic colors in up to 5 filters for input values of the stellar parameters Teff, log(g), [Fe/H], E(B-V) and [alpha/Fe].
BCES performs robust linear regression on (X,Y) data points where both X and Y have measurement errors. The fitting method is the bivariate correlated errors and intrinsic scatter (BCES). Some of the advantages of BCES regression compared to ordinary least squares fitting are that it allows for measurement errors on both variables and permits the measurement errors for the two variables to be dependent. Further it permits the magnitudes of the measurement errors to depend on the measurements and other lines such as the bisector and the orthogonal regression can be constructed.
beamconv simulates the scanning of the CMB sky while incorporating realistic beams and scan strategies. It uses (spin-)spherical harmonic representations of the (polarized) beam response and sky to generate simulated CMB detector signal timelines. Beams can be arbitrarily shaped. Pointing timelines can be read in or calculated on the fly; optionally, the results can be binned on the sphere.
beamModelTester enables evaluation of models of the variation in sensitivity and apparent polarization of fixed antenna phased array radio telescopes. The sensitivity of such instruments varies with respect to the orientation of the source to the antenna, resulting in variation in sensitivity over altitude and azimuth that is not consistent with respect to frequency due to other geometric effects. In addition, the different relative orientation of orthogonal pairs of linear antennae produces a difference in sensitivity between the antennae, leading to an artificial apparent polarization. Comparing the model with observations made using the given telescope makes it possible evaluate the model's performance; the results of this evaluation can provide a figure of merit for the model and guide improvements to it. This system also enables plotting of results from a single station observation on a variety of parameters.
The BEARCLAW package is a multidimensional, Eulerian AMR-capable computational code written in Fortran to solve hyperbolic systems for astrophysical applications. It is part of AstroBEAR, a hydrodynamic & magnetohydrodynamic code environment designed for a variety of astrophysical applications which allows simulations in 2, 2.5 (i.e., cylindrical), and 3 dimensions, in either cartesian or curvilinear coordinates.
BEAST (Bayesian Extinction and Stellar Tool) fits the ultraviolet to near-infrared photometric SEDs of stars to extract stellar and dust extinction parameters. The stellar parameters are age (t), mass (M), metallicity (M), and distance (d). The dust extinction parameters are dust column (Av), average grain size (Rv), and mixing between type A and B extinction curves (fA).
BEHR is a standalone command-line C program designed to quickly estimate the hardness ratios and their uncertainties for astrophysical sources. It is especially useful in the Poisson regime of low counts, and computes the proper uncertainty regardless of whether the source is detected in both passbands or not.
BELLAMY is a cross-matching algorithm designed primarily for radio images, that aims to match all sources in the supplied target catalogue to sources in a reference catalogue by calculating the probability of a match. BELLAMY utilises not only the position of a source on the sky, but also the flux data to calculate this probability, determining the most probable match in the reference catalog to the target source. Additionally, BELLAMY attempts to undo any spatial distortion that may be affecting the target catalogue, by creating a model of the offsets of matched sources which is then applied to unmatched sources. This combines to produce an iterative cross-matching algorithm that provides the user with an obvious measure of how confident they should be with the results of a cross-match.
Bessel, written in the C programming language, uses an accurate scheme for evaluating Bessel functions of high order. It has been extensively tested against a number of other routines, demonstrating its accuracy and efficiency.
bettermoments measures precise line-of-sight velocities from Doppler shifted lines to determine small scale deviations indicative of, for example, embedded planets.
The "busy function" accurately describes the characteristic double-horn HI profile of many galaxies. Implemented in a C/C++ library and Python module called BF_dist, it is a continuous, differentiable function that consists of only two basic functions, the error function, erf(x), and a polynomial, |x|^n, of degree n >= 2. BF_dist offers great flexibility in fitting a wide range of HI profiles from the Gaussian profiles of dwarf galaxies to the broad, asymmetric double-horn profiles of spiral galaxies, and can be used to parametrize observed HI spectra of galaxies and the construction of spectral templates for simulations and matched filtering algorithms accurately and efficiently.
BGLS calculates the Bayesian Generalized Lomb-Scargle periodogram. It takes as input arrays with a time series, a dataset and errors on those data, and returns arrays with sampled periods and the periodogram values at those periods.
BHDD (BlackHolesDarkDress) simulates primordial black hole (PBH) binaries that are clothed in dark matter (DM) halos. The software uses N-body simulations and analytical estimates to follow the evolution of PBH binaries formed in the early Universe.
bhint is a post-Newtonian, high-precision integrator for stellar systems surrounding a super-massive black hole. The algorithm makes use of the fact that the Keplerian orbits in such a potential can be calculated directly and are only weakly perturbed. For a given average number of steps per orbit, bhint is almost a factor of 100 more accurate than the standard Hermite method.
BHJet models steady-state SEDs of jets launched from accreting black holes. This semi-analytical, multi-zone jet model is applicable across the entire black hole mass scale, from black hole X-ray binaries (both low and high mass) to active galactic nuclei of any class (from low-luminosity AGN to flat spectrum radio quasars). It is designed to be more comparable than other codes to GRMHD simulations and/or RMHD semi-analytical solutions.
BHMcalc provides renditions of the instantaneous circumbinary habital zone (CHZ) and also calculates BHM properties of the system including those related to the rotational evolution of the stellar components and the combined XUV and SW fluxes as measured at different distances from the binary. Moreover, it provides numerical results that can be further manipulated and used to calculate other properties.
The Black Hole Perturbation Toolkit models gravitational radiation from small mass-ratio binaries as well as from the ringdown of black holes. The former are key sources for the future space-based gravitational wave detector LISA. BHPToolkit brings together core elements of multiple scattered black hole perturbation theory codes into a Toolkit that can be used by all; different tools can be installed individually by users depending on need and interest.
BHSKY (copyright 1999 by Robert J. Nemiroff) computes the visual distortion effects visible to an observer traveling around and descending near a non-rotating black hole. The codes are general relativistically accurate and incorporate concepts such as large-angle deflections, image magnifications, multiple imaging, blue-shifting, and the location of the photon sphere. Once star.dat is edited to define the position and orientation of the observer relative to the black hole, bhsky_table should be run to create a table of photon deflection angles. Next bhsky_image reads this table and recomputes the perceived positions of stars in star.num, the Yale Bright Star Catalog. Lastly, bhsky_camera plots these results. The code currently tracks only the two brightest images of each star, and hence becomes noticeably incomplete within 1.1 times the Schwarzschild radius.
BIANCHI provides functionality to support the simulation of Bianchi Type VIIh induced temperature fluctuations in CMB maps of a universe with shear and rotation. The implementation is based on the solutions to the Bianchi models derived by Barrow et al. (1985), which do not incorporate any dark energy component. Functionality is provided to compute the induced fluctuations on the sphere directly in either real or harmonic space.
bias_emulator models the clustering of halos on large scales. It incorporates the cosmological dependence of the bias beyond the mapping of halo mass to peak height. Precise measurements of the halo bias in the simulations are interpolated across cosmological parameter space to obtain the halo bias at any point in parameter space within the simulation cloud. A tool to produce realizations of correlated noise for propagating the modeling uncertainty into error budgets that use the emulator is also provided.
The Bayesian Inference Engine (BIE) is an object-oriented library of tools written in C++ designed explicitly to enable Bayesian update and model comparison for astronomical problems. To facilitate "what if" exploration, BIE provides a command line interface (written with Bison and Flex) to run input scripts. The output of the code is a simulation of the Bayesian posterior distribution from which summary statistics e.g. by taking moments, or determine confidence intervals and so forth, can be determined. All of these quantities are fundamentally integrals and the Markov Chain approach produces variates $ heta$ distributed according to $P( heta|D)$ so moments are trivially obtained by summing of the ensemble of variates.
BiFFT uses Fourier transforms to implement the Dirac-Delta function that enforces a closed triangle of three k-vectors; this allows very fast calculations of the bispectrum. Once the C code associated with the package is compiled and the source folder directed to the location of the C code, the user can run the code using the python wrapper.The binning in each function has been tested over the course of many years and the user can use it out of the box without ever touching the underlying C code. However, the cylindrical bispectrum calculation is much more sensitive to sample variance; its default binning is quite coarse and might need adjusting (and testing) for some datasets.
Bifrost is a stream processing framework that eases the development of high-throughput processing CPU/GPU pipelines. It is designed for digital signal processing (DSP) applications within radio astronomy. Bifrost uses a flexible ring buffer implementation that allows different signal processing blocks to be connected to form a pipeline. Each block may be assigned to a CPU core, and the ring buffers are used to transport data to and from blocks. Processing blocks may be run on either the CPU or GPU, and the ring buffer will take care of memory copies between the CPU and GPU spaces.
Big MACS is a Python program that estimates an accurate photometric calibration from only an input catalog of stellar magnitudes and filter transmission functions. The user does not have to measure color terms which can be difficult to characterize. Supplied with filter transmission functions, Big MACS synthesizes an expected stellar locus for your data and then simultaneously solves for all unknown zeropoints when fitting to the instrumental locus. The code uses a spectroscopic model for the SDSS stellar locus in color-color space and filter functions to compute expected locus. The stellar locus model is corrected for Milky Way reddening. If SDSS or 2MASS photometry is available for stars in field, Big MACS can yield a highly accurate absolute calibration.
BiGONLight (Bi-local geodesic operators framework for numerical light propagation) encodes the Bi-local Geodesic Operators formalism (BGO) to study light propagation in the geometric optics regime in General Relativity. The parallel transport equations, the optical tidal matrix, and the geodesic deviation equations for the bilocal operators are expressed in 3+1 form and encoded in BiGONLight as Mathematica functions. The bilocal operators are used to obtain all possible optical observables by combining them with the observer and emitter four-velocities and four-accelerations. The user can choose the position of the source and the observer anywhere along the null geodesic with any four-velocities and four-accelerations.
BiHalofit fits the matter bispectrum in the nonlinear regime calibrated by high-resolution cosmological N-body simulations of 41 cold dark matter models around the Planck 2015 best-fit parameters. The parameterization is similar to that in Halofit (ascl:1402.032). The simulation volume is sufficiently large to cover almost all measurable triangle bispectrum configurations in the universe, and the function is calibrated using one-loop perturbation theory at large scales. BiHaloFit predicts the weak-lensing bispectrum and will assist current and future weak-lensing surveys and cosmic microwave background lensing experiments.
Bilby provides a user-friendly interface to perform parameter estimation. It is primarily designed and built for inference of compact binary coalescence events in interferometric data, such as analysis of compact binary mergers and other types of signal model including supernovae and the remnants of binary neutron star mergers, but it can also be used for more general problems. The software is flexible, allowing the user to change the signal model, implement new likelihood functions, and add new detectors. Bilby can also be used to do population studies using hierarchical Bayesian modelling.
Binary-Speckle reduces Speckle or AO data from the raw data to deconvolved images (in Fourier space), to determine the parameters of a binary or triple, and to find limits for undetected companion stars.
Binary computes the evolution of an accretion disc interacting with a binary system. It has been developed and used to study the coupled evolution of supermassive BH binaries and gaseous accretion discs.
binaryBHexp (binary black hole explorer) uses surrogate models of numerical simulations to generate on-the-fly interactive visualizations of precessing binary black holes. These visualizations can be generated in a few seconds and at any point in the 7-dimensional parameter space of the underlying surrogate models. These visualizations provide a valuable means to understand and gain insights about binary black hole systems and gravitational physics such as those detected by the LIGO gravitational wave detector.
binaryoffset identifies the binary offset effect in images from any detector. The easiest input to work with is a dark or bias image that is spatially flat. The code can also be run on images that are not spatially flat, assuming that there is some model of the signal on the CCD that can be used to produce a residual image.
Given a series of radial velocities as a function of time for a star in a binary system, BinaryStarSolver solves for various orbital parameters. Namely, it solves for eccentricity (e), argument of periastron (ω), velocity amplitude (K), long term average radial velocity (γ), and orbital period (P). If the orbital parameters of a primary star are already known, it can also find the orbital parameters of a companion star, with only a few radial velocity data points.
The BI-spectra and Non-Gaussianity Operator (BINGO) code, written in Fortran, computes the scalar bi-spectrum and the non-Gaussianity parameter fNL in single field inflationary models involving the canonical scalar field. BINGO can calculate all the different contributions to the bi-spectrum and the parameter fNL for an arbitrary triangular configuration of the wavevectors.
BinMag examines theoretical stellar spectra computed with Synth/SynthMag/Synmast/Synth3/SME spectrum synthesis codes and compare them to observations. An IDL widget program, BinMag applies radial velocity shift and broadening to the theoretical spectra to account for the effects of stellar rotation, radial-tangential macroturbulence, and instrumental smearing. The code can also simulate spectra of spectroscopic binary stars by appropriate coaddition of two synthetic spectra. Additionally, BinMag can be used to measure equivalent width, fit line profile shapes with analytical functions, and to automatically determine radial velocity and broadening parameters. BinMag interfaces with the Synth3 (ascl:1212.010) and SME (ascl:1202.013) codes, allowing the user to determine chemical abundances and stellar atmospheric parameters from the observed spectra.
Binospec reduces data for the Binospec imaging spectrograph. The software is also used for observation planning and instrument control, and is automated to decrease the number of tasks the user has to perform. Binospec uses a database-driven approach for instrument configuration and sequencing of observations to maximize efficiency, and a web-based interface is available for defining observations, monitoring status, and retrieving data products.
Binsim produces images of interacting binaries for any system parameters. Though not suitable for modeling light curves or spectra, the resulting images are helpful in visualizing the geometry of a given system and are also helpful in talks and educational work. The code uses the OpenGL API to do the 3D rendering. The software can produce images of cataclysmic variables and X-ray binaries, and can render the mass donor star, an axisymmetric disc (without superhumps, warps or spirals), the accretion stream and hotspot, and a "corona."
The BINSYN program suite is a collection of programs for analysis of binary star systems with or without an optically thick accretion disk. BINSYN produces synthetic spectra of individual binary star components plus a synthetic spectrum of the system. If the system includes an accretion disk, BINSYN also produces a separate synthetic spectrum of the disk face and rim. A system routine convolves the synthetic spectra with filter profiles of several photometric standards to produce absolute synthetic photometry output. The package generates synthetic light curves and determines an optimized solution for system parameters.
BiPoS1 (Binary Population Synthesizer) efficiently calculates binary distribution functions after the dynamical processing of a realistic population of binary stars during the first few Myr in the hosting embedded star cluster. It is particularly useful for generating a realistic birth binary population as an input for N-body simulations of globular clusters. Instead of time-consuming N-body simulations, BiPoS1 uses the stellar dynamical operator, which determines the fraction of surviving binaries depending on the binding energy of the binaries. The stellar dynamical operator depends on the initial star cluster density, as well as the time until the residual gas of the star cluster is expelled. At the time of gas expulsion, the dynamical processing of the binary population is assumed to effectively end due to the expansion of the star cluster related to that event. BiPoS1 has also a galactic-field mode, in order to synthesize the stellar population of a whole galaxy.
The Bisous model is a marked point process that models multi-dimensional patterns. The Bisous filament finder works directly with galaxy distribution data and the model intrinsically takes into account the connectivity of the filamentary network. The Bisous model generates the visit map (the probability to find a filament at a given point) together with the filament orientation field; these two fields are used to extract filament spines from the data.
Bitshuffle rearranges typed, binary data for improving compression; the algorithm is implemented in a python/C package within the Numpy framework. The library can be used alongside HDF5 to compress and decompress datasets and is integrated through the dynamically loaded filters framework. Algorithmically, Bitshuffle is closely related to HDF5's Shuffle filter except it operates at the bit level instead of the byte level. Arranging a typed data array in to a matrix with the elements as the rows and the bits within the elements as the columns, Bitshuffle "transposes" the matrix, such that all the least-significant-bits are in a row, etc. This transposition is performed within blocks of data roughly 8kB long; this does not in itself compress data, but rearranges it for more efficient compression. A compression library is necessary to perform the actual compression. This scheme has been used for compression of radio data in high performance computing.
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