Results 1001-1100 of 2516 (2473 ASCL, 43 submitted)
HelioPy provides a set of tools to download and read in data, and carry out other common data processing tasks for heliospheric and planetary physics. It handles a wide variety of solar and satellite data and builds upon the SpiceyPy package (ascl:1903.016) to provide an accessible interface for performing orbital calculations. It has also implemented a framework to perform transformations between some common coordinate systems.
HELIOS-K is an opacity calculator for exoplanetary atmospheres. It takes a line list as an input and computes the line shapes of an arbitrary number of spectral lines (~millions to billions). HELIOS-K is capable of computing 100,000 spectral lines in 1 second; it is written in CUDA, is optimized for graphics processing units (GPUs), and can be used with the HELIOS radiative transfer code (ascl:1807.009).
HELIOS, a radiative transfer code, is constructed for studying exoplanetary atmospheres. The model atmospheres of HELIOS are one-dimensional and plane-parallel, and the equation of radiative transfer is solved in the two-stream approximation with non-isotropic scattering. Though HELIOS can be used alone, the opacity calculator HELIOS-K (ascl:1503.004) can be used with it to provide the molecular opacities.
HENDRICS, a rewrite and update to MaLTPyNT (ascl:1502.021), contains command-line scripts based on Stingray (ascl:1608.001) to perform a quick-look (spectral-)timing analysis of X-ray data, treating the gaps in the data due, e.g., to occultation from the Earth or passages through the SAA, properly. Despite its original main focus on NuSTAR, HENDRICS can perform standard aperiodic timing analysis on X-ray data from, in principle, any other satellite, and its features include power density and cross spectra, time lags, pulsar searches with the Epoch folding and the Z_n^2 statistics, color-color and color-intensity diagrams. The periodograms produced by HENDRICS (such as a power density spectrum or a cospectrum) can be saved in a format compatible with XSPEC (ascl:9910.005) or ISIS (ascl:1302.002)
The hera_opm package provides a convenient and flexible framework for developing data analysis pipelines for operating on a sequence of input files. Though developed for application to the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA), it is a general package that can be applied to any workflow designed to apply a series of analysis steps to any type of files. It is also portable, operating both on a diversity of computer clusters with batch submission systems and local machines.
HERACLES is a 3D hydrodynamical code used to simulate astrophysical fluid flows. It uses a finite volume method on fixed grids to solve the equations of hydrodynamics, MHD, radiative transfer and gravity. This software is developed at the Service d'Astrophysique, CEA/Saclay as part of the COAST project and is registered under the CeCILL license. HERACLES simulates astrophysical fluid flows using a grid based Eulerian finite volume Godunov method. It is capable of simulating pure hydrodynamical flows, magneto-hydrodynamic flows, radiation hydrodynamic flows (using either flux limited diffusion or the M1 moment method), self-gravitating flows using a Poisson solver or all of the above. HERACLES uses cartesian, spherical and cylindrical grids.
hfof is a 3-d friends-of-friends (FoF) cluster finder with Python bindings based on a fast spatial hashing algorithm that identifies connected sets of points where the point-wise connections are determined by a fixed spatial distance. This technique sorts particles into fine cells sufficiently compact to guarantee their cohabitants are linked, and uses locality sensitive hashing to search for neighboring (blocks of) cells. Tests on N-body simulations of up to a billion particles exhibit speed increases of factors up to 20x compared with FOF via trees, and is consistently complete in less than the time of a k-d tree construction, giving it an intrinsic advantage over tree-based methods.
hfs_fit performs parameter optimization in the analysis of emission line hyperfine structure (HFS). The code uses a simulated annealing algorithm to optimize the magnetic dipole interaction constants, electric quadrupole interaction constants, Voigt profile widths and the center of gravity wavenumber for a given emission line profile. The fit can be changed visually with sliders for parameters, which is useful when HFS constants are unknown.
HfS fits the hyperfine structure of spectral lines, with multiple velocity components. The HfS_nh3 procedures included in HfS fit simultaneously the hyperfine structure of the NH3 (J,K)= (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions, and perform a standard analysis to derive the NH3 column density, rotational temperature Trot, and kinetic temperature Tk. HfS uses a Monte Carlo approach for fitting the line parameters, with special attention to the derivation of the parameter uncertainties. HfS includes procedures that make use of parallel computing for fitting spectra from a data cube.
hh0 is a Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM) that describes the full distance ladder, from nearby geometric-distance anchors through Cepheids to SNe in the Hubble flow. It does not rely on any of the underlying distributions being Gaussian, allowing outliers to be modeled and obviating the need for any arbitrary data cuts.
HHTpywrapper is a python interface to call the Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT) MATLAB package. HHT is a time-frequency analysis method to adaptively decompose a signal, that could be generated by non-stationary and/or nonlinear processes, into basis components at different timescales, and then Hilbert transform these components into instantaneous phases, frequencies and amplitudes as functions of time. HHT has been successfully applied to analyzing X-ray quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) from the active galactic nucleus RE J1034+396 (Hu et al. 2014) and two black hole X-ray binaries, XTE J1550–564 (Su et al. 2015) and GX 339-4 (Su et al. 2017). HHTpywrapper provides examples of reproducing HHT analysis results in Su et al. (2015) and Su et al. (2017). This project is originated from the Astro Hack Week 2015.
hi_class implements Horndeski's theory of gravity in the modern Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (ascl:1106.020). It can be used to compute any cosmological observable at the level of background or linear perturbations, such as cosmological distances, cosmic microwave background, matter power and number count spectra (including relativistic effects). hi_class can be readily interfaced with Monte Python (ascl:1307.002) to test Gravity and Dark Energy models.
HIBAYES implements fully-Bayesian extraction of the sky-averaged (global) 21-cm signal from the Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization in the presence of foreground emission. User-defined likelihood and prior functions are called by the sampler PyMultiNest (ascl:1606.005) in order to jointly explore the full (signal plus foreground) posterior probability distribution and evaluate the Bayesian evidence for a given model. Implemented models, for simulation and fitting, include gaussians (HI signal) and polynomials (foregrounds). Some simple plotting and analysis tools are supplied. The code can be extended to other models (physical or empirical), to incorporate data from other experiments, or to use alternative Monte-Carlo sampling engines as required.
HIDE (HI Data Emulator) forward-models the process of collecting astronomical radio signals in a single dish radio telescope instrument and outputs pixel-level time-ordered-data. Written in Python, HIDE models the noise and RFI modeling of the data and with its companion code SEEK (ascl:1607.020) provides end-to-end simulation and processing of radio survey data.
hierArc hierarchically infers strong lensing mass density profiles and the cosmological parameters, in particular the Hubble constant. The software supports lenses with imaging data and kinematics, and optionally time delays. The kinematics modeling is performed in conjunction with lenstronomy (ascl:1804.012).
HiFLEx reduces echelle data taken with a single or bifurcated fiber input. It takes a FITS image file (i.e., a CCD image) and runs data reduction steps, extracts out orders from an Echelle spectrograph (regardless of separation and curvature, as long as orders are distinguishable from one-another), applies the wavelength correction, measures the radial velocity, and performs further calibration steps.
HiGal SED Fitter fits modified blackbody SEDs to Herschel data, specifically targeted at Herschel Hi-Gal data.
Motivated by experimental probes of general relativity, we adopt methods from perturbative (quantum) field theory to compute, up to certain integrals, the effective lagrangian for its n-body problem. Perturbation theory is performed about a background Minkowski spacetime to O[(v/c)^4] beyond Newtonian gravity, where v is the typical speed of these n particles in their center of energy frame. For the specific case of the 2 body problem, the major efforts underway to measure gravitational waves produced by in-spiraling compact astrophysical binaries require their gravitational interactions to be computed beyond the currently known O[(v/c)^7]. We argue that such higher order post-Newtonian calculations must be automated for these field theoretic methods to be applied successfully to achieve this goal. In view of this, we outline an algorithm that would in principle generate the relevant Feynman diagrams to an arbitrary order in v/c and take steps to develop the necessary software. The Feynman diagrams contributing to the n-body effective action at O[(v/c)^6] beyond Newton are derived.
HiGPUs is an implementation of the numerical integration of the classical, gravitational, N-body problem, based on a 6th order Hermite’s integration scheme with block time steps, with a direct evaluation of the particle-particle forces. The main innovation of this code is its full parallelization, exploiting both OpenMP and MPI in the use of the multicore Central Processing Units as well as either Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) or OpenCL for the hosted Graphic Processing Units. We tested both performance and accuracy of the code using up to 256 GPUs in the supercomputer IBM iDataPlex DX360M3 Linux Infiniband Cluster provided by the italian supercomputing consortium CINECA, for values of N ≤ 8 millions. We were able to follow the evolution of a system of 8 million bodies for few crossing times, task previously unreached by direct summation codes.
HiGPUs is also available as part of the AMUSE project.
HII-CHI-mistry_UV derives oxygen and carbon abundances using the ultraviolet (UV) lines emitted by the gas phase ionized by massive stars. The code first fixes C/O using ratios of appropriate emission lines and, in a second step, calculates O/H and the ionization parameter from carbon lines in the UV. An optical version of this Python code, HII-CHI-mistry (ascl:1807.007), is also available.
HII-CHI-mistry calculates the oxygen abundance for gaseous nebulae ionized by massive stars using optical collisionally excited emission lines. This code takes the extinction-corrected emission line fluxes and, based on a Χ2 minimization on a photoionization models grid, determines chemical-abundances (O/H, N/O) and ionization parameters. An ultraviolet version of this Python code, HII-CHI-mistry-UV (ascl:1807.008), is also available.
HIIexplorer detects and extracts the integrated spectra of HII regions from IFS datacubes. The procedure assumes H ii regions are peaky/isolated structures with a strong ionized gas emission, clearly above the continuum emission and the average ionized gas emission across the galaxy and that H ii regions have a typical physical size of about a hundred or a few hundreds of parsecs, which corresponds to a typical projected size at the distance of the galaxies of a few arcsec for galaxies at z~0.016. All input parameters can be derived from either a visual inspection and/or a statistical analysis of the Hα emission line map. The algorithm produces a segmentation FITS file describing the pixels associated to each H ii region.
HIIPHOT enables accurate photometric characterization of H II regions while permitting genuine adaptivity to irregular source morphology. It makes a first guess at the shapes of all sources through object recognition techniques; it then allows for departure from such idealized "seeds" through an iterative growing procedure and derives photometric corrections for spatially coincident diffuse emission from a low-order surface fit to the background after exclusion of all detected sources.
Hilal-Obs authenticates lunar crescent first visibility reports. The code, written in Python, uses PyEphem (ascl:1112.014) for astrometrics, and takes into account all the factors that affect lunar crescent visibility, including atmospheric extinction, observer physiology, sky and lunar brightness, contrast threshold, and the type of observation.
The Herschel Space Observatory is the fourth cornerstone mission in the ESA science programme and performs photometry and spectroscopy in the 55 - 672 micron range. The development of the Herschel Data Processing System started in 2002 to support the data analysis for Instrument Level Tests. The Herschel Data Processing System was used for the pre-flight characterisation of the instruments, and during various ground segment test campaigns. Following the successful launch of Herschel 14th of May 2009 the Herschel Data Processing System demonstrated its maturity when the first PACS preview observation of M51 was processed within 30 minutes of reception of the first science data after launch. Also the first HIFI observations on DR21 were successfully reduced to high quality spectra, followed by SPIRE observations on M66 and M74. A fast turn-around cycle between data retrieval and the production of science-ready products was demonstrated during the Herschel Science Demonstration Phase Initial Results Workshop held 7 months after launch, which is a clear proof that the system has reached a good level of maturity.
HIPSTER (HIgh-k Power Spectrum EstimatoR) computes small-scale power spectra and isotropic bispectra for cosmological simulations and galaxy surveys of arbitrary shape. The code computes the Legendre multipoles of the power spectrum, Pℓ(k), or bispectrum Bℓ(k1,k2), by computing weighted pair counts over the simulation box or survey, truncated at some maximum radius. The code can be run either in 'aperiodic' or 'periodic' mode for galaxy surveys or cosmological simulations respectively. HIPSTER also supports weighted spectra, for example when tracer particles are weighted by their mass in a multi-species simulation. Generalization to anisotropic bispectra is straightforward (and requires no additional computing time) and can be added on request.
HISS stacks HI (emission and absorption) spectra in a consistent and reliable manner to enable statistical analysis of average HI properties. It provides plots of the stacked spectrum and reference spectrum with any fitted function, of the stacked noise response, and of the distribution of the integrated fluxes when calculating the uncertainties. It also produces a table containing the integrated flux calculated from the fitted functions and the stacked spectrum, among other output files.
HLattice simulates scalar fields and gravity in the early universe. The code allows the user to select between symplectic integrators, descretization schemes, and metrics such as Minkowski or FRW backgrounds and adaptice schemes in an "all-in-one" configuration file.
HLINOP is a collection of codes for computing hydrogen line profiles and opacities in the conditions typical of stellar atmospheres. It includes HLINOP for approximate quick calculation of any line of neutral hydrogen (suitable for model atmosphere calculations), based on the Fortran code of Kurucz and Peterson found in ATLAS9. It also includes HLINPROF, for detailed, accurate calculation of lower Balmer line profiles (suitable for detailed analysis of Balmer lines) and HBOP, to implement the occupation probability formalism of Daeppen, Anderson and Milhalas (1987) and thus account for the merging of bound-bound and bound-free opacity (used often as a wrapper to HLINOP for model atmosphere calculations).
HMcode computes the halo-model matter power spectrum. It is written in Fortran90 and has been designed to quickly (~0.5s for 200 k-values across 16 redshifts on a single core) produce matter spectra for a wide range of cosmological models. In testing it was shown to match spectra produced by the 'Coyote Emulator' to an accuracy of 5 per cent for k less than 10h Mpc^-1. However, it can also produce spectra well outside of the parameter space of the emulator.
HMF calculates the Halo Mass Function (HMF) given any set of cosmological parameters and fitting function and serves as the backend for the web application HMFcalc. Written in Python, it allows for dynamic accurate calculation of the transfer function with CAMB (ascl:1102.026) and efficient and self-consistent parameter updates. HMF offers exploration of the effects of cosmological parameters, redshift and fitting function on the predicted HMF.
HNBody is a new set of software utilities geared to the integration of hierarchical (nearly-Keplerian) N-body systems. Our focus is on symplectic methods, and we have included explicit support for three classes of particles (heavy, light, and massless), second and fourth order methods, post-Newtonian corrections, and the use of a symplectic corrector (among other things). For testing purposes, we also provide support for more general integration schemes (Bulirsch-Stoer & Runge-Kutta). Configuration files employing an intuitive syntax allow for easy problem setup, and many simple simulations can be done without the user compiling any code. Low-level interfaces are also available, enabling extensive customization.
HO-CHUNK calculates radiative equilibrium temperature solution, thermal and PAH/vsg emission, scattering and polarization in protostellar geometries. It is useful for computing spectral energy distributions (SEDs), polarization spectra, and images.
HOMER (Helper Of My Eternal Retrievals) is a machine-learning-accelerated Bayesian inverse modeling code. Given some data and uncertainties, the code determines the posterior distribution of a model. HOMER uses MC3 (ascl:1610.013) for its MCMC; its forward model is a neural network surrogate model trained by MARGE (ascl:2003.010). The code produces plots of the 1D marginalized posteriors, 2D pairwise posteriors, and parameter history traces, and can also overplot the 1D and 2D posteriors for comparison with another posterior. HOMER computes the Bhattacharyya coefficient to compare the similarity of two 1D marginalized posteriors.
We describe a new method (HOP) for identifying groups of particles in N-body simulations. Having assigned to every particle an estimate of its local density, we associate each particle with the densest of the Nh particles nearest to it. Repeating this process allows us to trace a path, within the particle set itself, from each particle in the direction of increasing density. The path ends when it reaches a particle that is its own densest neighbor; all particles reaching the same such particle are identified as a group. Combined with an adaptive smoothing kernel for finding the densities, this method is spatially adaptive, coordinate-free, and numerically straight-forward. One can proceed to process the output by truncating groups at a particular density contour and combining groups that share a (possibly different) density contour. While the resulting algorithm has several user-chosen parameters, we show that the results are insensitive to most of these, the exception being the outer density cutoff of the groups.
HOPE is a specialized Python just-in-time (JIT) compiler designed for numerical astrophysical applications. HOPE focuses on a subset of the language and is able to translate Python code into C++ while performing numerical optimization on mathematical expressions at runtime. To enable the JIT compilation, the user only needs to add a decorator to the function definition. By using HOPE, the user benefits from being able to write common numerical code in Python while getting the performance of compiled implementation.
HorizonGRound forward models general relativistic effects from the tracer luminosity function. It also compares relativistic corrections with the local primordial non-Gaussianity signature in ultra-large-scale clustering statistics. The package includes several recipes along with the data required to run them.
HOTPANTS (High Order Transform of PSF ANd Template Subtraction) implements the Alard 1999 algorithm for image subtraction. It photometrically aligns one input image with another after they have been astrometrically aligned.
The Hellenic Open University Reconstruction & Simulation (HOURS) software package contains a realistic simulation package of the detector response of very large (km3-scale) underwater neutrino telescopes, including an accurate description of all the relevant physical processes, the production of signal and background as well as several analysis strategies for triggering and pattern recognition, event reconstruction, tracking and energy estimation. HOURS also provides tools for simulating calibration techniques and other studies for estimating the detector sensitivity to several neutrino sources.
HII Region Models fits HII region models to observed radio recombination line and radio continuum data. The algorithm includes the calculations of departure coefficients to correct for non-LTE effects. HII Region Models has been used to model star formation in the nucleus of IC 342.
Hrothgar is a parallel minimizer and Markov Chain Monte Carlo generator. It has been used to solve optimization problems in astrophysics (galaxy cluster mass profiles) as well as in experimental particle physics (hadronic tau decays).
HSIM simulates observations with HARMONI on the Extremely Large Telescope. HSIM takes high spectral and spatial resolution input data cubes, encoding physical descriptions of astrophysical sources, and generates mock observed data cubes. The simulations incorporate detailed models of the sky, telescope, instrument, and detectors to produce realistic mock data. HSIM performs in-depth simulations for several key science cases as part of the design and development of the HARMONI integral field spectrograph, including the ELT AO performance, atmospheric effects and realistic detector statistics.
HSTCosmicrays finds and characterizes cosmic rays found in dark frames (exposures taken with the shutter closed) taken with instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Dark exposures are obtained routinely by all the Hubble Space Telescope instruments for calibration. The main processing pipeline runs locally or in the cloud on AWS utilizing the HST Public Dataset.
HUAYNO implements integrators derived from second order Hamiltonian splitting for N-body dynamics. This integration scheme conserves energy and momentum with little or no systematic drift. The code uses an explicit but approximate formula for the time symmetrization that is compatible with the use of individual time steps, making an iterative scheme unnecessary. HUAYNO is available as part of the AMUSE package (ascl:1107.007).
HumVI creates a composite color image from sets of input FITS files, following the Lupton et al (2004, ascl:1511.013) composition algorithm. Written in Python, it takes three FITS files as input and returns a color composite, color-saturated png image with an arcsinh stretch. HumVI reads the zero points out of the FITS headers and uses them to put all the images on the same flux scale; photometrically calibrated images produce the best results.
We describe the first parallel implementation of an adaptive particle-particle, particle-mesh code with smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Parallelisation of the serial code, "Hydra," is achieved by using CRAFT, a Cray proprietary language which allows rapid implementation of a serial code on a parallel machine by allowing global addressing of distributed memory.
The collisionless variant of the code has already completed several 16.8 million particle cosmological simulations on a 128 processor Cray T3D whilst the full hydrodynamic code has completed several 4.2 million particle combined gas and dark matter runs. The efficiency of the code now allows parameter-space explorations to be performed routinely using $64^3$ particles of each species. A complete run including gas cooling, from high redshift to the present epoch requires approximately 10 hours on 64 processors.
HydraLens generates gravitational lens model files for Lenstool (ascl:1102.004), PixeLens (ascl:1102.007), glafic (ascl:1010.012) and Lensmodel and can also translate lens model files among these four lens model codes. Through a GUI, the user enters a new model by specifying the type of model and is then led through screens to collect the data. Written in MS Visual Basic, the code can also translate an existing model from any of the four supported codes to any of the other three.
HydroCode1D is a 1D finite volume code that can run any problem with 1D or 2D/3D spherical symmetry including external gravity or self-gravity. The program provides, depending on the configuration, output files that contain the midpoint position, density, velocity and pressure for each cell in the grid (in SI units). The program will by default use all available threads (as given by the environment variable OMP_NUM_THREADS). This can be overwritten by giving the desired number of threads as a command line argument to the program.
The R package Hyper-Fit fits hyperplanes (hyper.fit) and creates 2D/3D visualizations (hyper.plot2d / hyper.plot3d) to produce robust 1D linear fits for 2D x vs y type data, and robust 2D plane fits to 3D x vs y vs z type data. This hyperplane fitting works generically for any N-1 hyperplane model being fit to a N dimensional dataset. All fits include intrinsic scatter in the generative model orthogonal to the hyperplane. A web interface for online fitting is also available at http://hyperfit.icrar.org.
Hyperion is a three-dimensional dust continuum Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code that is designed to be as generic as possible, allowing radiative transfer to be computed through a variety of three-dimensional grids. The main part of the code is problem-independent, and only requires an arbitrary three-dimensional density structure, dust properties, the position and properties of the illuminating sources, and parameters controlling the running and output of the code. Hyperion is parallelized, and is shown to scale well to thousands of processes. Two common benchmark models for protoplanetary disks were computed, and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with those from other codes. Finally, to demonstrate the capabilities of the code, dust temperatures, SEDs, and synthetic multi-wavelength images were computed for a dynamical simulation of a low-mass star formation region.
From a photometric catalogue, hyperz finds the redshift of each object by means of a standard SED fitting procedure, i.e. comparing the observed magnitudes with the expected ones, computed from template Spectral Energy Distributions. The set of templates used in the minimization procedure (age, metallicity, reddening, absorption in the Lyman forest, ...) is studied in detail, through both real and simulated data. The expected accuracy of photometric redshifts, as well as the fraction of catastrophic identifications and wrong detections, is given as a function of the redshift range, the set of filters considered, and the photometric accuracy. Special attention is paid to the results expected from real data.
We present a state-of-the-art primordial recombination code, HyRec, including all the physical effects that have been shown to significantly affect recombination. The computation of helium recombination includes simple analytic treatments of hydrogen continuum opacity in the He I 2 1P - 1 1S line, the He I] 2 3P - 1 1S line, and treats feedback between these lines within the on-the-spot approximation. Hydrogen recombination is computed using the effective multilevel atom method, virtually accounting for an infinite number of excited states. We account for two-photon transitions from 2s and higher levels as well as frequency diffusion in Lyman-alpha with a full radiative transfer calculation. We present a new method to evolve the radiation field simultaneously with the level populations and the free electron fraction. These computations are sped up by taking advantage of the particular sparseness pattern of the equations describing the radiative transfer. The computation time for a full recombination history is ~2 seconds. This makes our code well suited for inclusion in Monte Carlo Markov chains for cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming high-precision cosmic microwave background anisotropy measurements.
This IDL library is designed to be used on astronomical images. Its main aim is to stack data to allow a statistical detection of faint signal, using a prior. For instance, you can stack 160um data using the positions of galaxies detected at 24um or 3.6um, or use WMAP sources to stack Planck data. It can estimate error bars using bootstrap, and it can perform photometry (aperture photometry, or PSF fitting, or other that you can plug). The IAS Stacking Library works with gnomonic projections (RA---TAN), and also with HEALPIX projection.
Icarus is a stellar binary light curve synthesis tool that generates a star, given some basic binary parameters, by solving the gravitational potential equation, creating a discretized stellar grid, and populating the stellar grid with physical parameters, including temperature and surface gravity. Icarus also evaluates the outcoming flux from the star given an observer's point of view (i.e., orbital phase and orbital orientation).
ICICLE (Initial Conditions for Isolated CoLlisionless systEms) generates stable initial conditions for isolated collisionless systems that can then be used in NBody simulations. It supports the Navarro-Frenk-White, Hernquist, King and Einasto density profiles.
ICORE is a command-line driven co-addition, mosaicking, and resolution enhancement (HiRes) tool for creating science quality products from image data in FITS format and with World Coordinate System information following the FITS-WCS standard. It includes preparatory steps such as image background matching, photometric gain-matching, and pixel-outlier rejection. Co-addition and/or HiRes'ing can be performed in either the inertial WCS or in the rest frame of a moving object. Three interpolation methods are supported: overlap-area weighting, drizzle, and weighting by the detector Point Response Function (PRF). The latter enables the creation of matched-filtered products for optimal point-source detection, but most importantly allows for resolution enhancement using a spatially-dependent deconvolution method. This is a variant of the classic Richardson-Lucy algorithm with the added benefit to simultaneously register and co-add multiple images to optimize signal-to-noise and sampling of the instrumental PSF. It can assume real (or otherwise "flat") image priors, mitigate "ringing" artifacts, and assess the quality of image solutions using statistically-motivated convergence criteria. Uncertainties are also estimated and internally validated for all products. The software supports multithreading that can be configured for different architectures. Numerous example scripts are included (with test data) to co-add and/or HiRes image data from Spitzer-IRAC/MIPS, WISE, and Herschel-SPIRE.
What is the best way to pixelize a sphere? This question occurs in many practical applications, for instance when making maps (of the earth or the celestial sphere) and when doing numerical integrals over the sphere. This package consists of source code and documentation for a method which involves inscribing the sphere in a regular icosahedron and then equalizing the pixel areas.
iCosmo is a software package to perform interactive cosmological calculations for the low redshift universe. The computation of distance measures, the matter power spectrum, and the growth factor is supported for any values of the cosmological parameters. It also performs the computation of observables for several cosmological probes such as weak gravitational lensing, baryon acoustic oscillations and supernovae. The associated errors for these observables can be derived for customised surveys, or for pre-set values corresponding to current or planned instruments. The code also allows for the calculation of cosmological forecasts with Fisher matrices which can be manipulated to combine different surveys and cosmological probes. The code is written in the IDL language and thus benefits from the convenient interactive features and scientific library available in this language. iCosmo can also be used as an engine to perform cosmological calculations in batch mode, and forms a convenient evolutive platform for the development of further cosmological modules. With its extensive documentation, it may also serve as a useful resource for teaching and for newcomers in the field of cosmology.
ICSF (Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting) "corrects" (x,y) data in which the ordinate represents the average of a quantity over a finite interval in the abscissa. A typical example is spectral data, where the average intensity over a wavelength bin (the measured quantity) is assigned to the center of the bin. If the profile is curved, the average will be different from the discrete value at the bin center location. ICSF, written in IDL and available separately and as part of SolarSoft (ascl:1208.013), corrects the intensity using an iterative procedure and cubic spline. The corrected intensity equals the "true" intensity at bin center, rather than the average over the bin. Unlike other methods that are restricted to a single fitting function, typically a spline, ICSF can be used with any function, such as a cubic spline or a Gaussian, with slight changes to the code.
iDealCam is an IDL GUI toolkit for processing multi-extension FITS file produced by CanariCam, the facility mid-IR instrument of Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). iDealCam is optimized for CanariCam data, but is also compatible with data generated by other instruments using similar detectors and data format (e.g., Michelle and T-ReCS at Gemini). iDealCam provides essential capabilities to examine, reduce, and analyze data obtained in the standard imaging or polarimetric imaging mode of CanariCam.
By combining test-particle and self-consistent techniques, we have developed a method to rapidly explore the parameter space of galactic encounters. Our method, implemented in an interactive graphics program, can be used to find the parameters required to reproduce the observed morphology and kinematics of interacting disk galaxies. We test this system on an artificial data-set of 36 equal-mass merging encounters, and show that it is usually possible to reproduce the morphology and kinematics of these encounters and that a good match strongly constrains the encounter parameters. An update to this software with additional capabilities, Identikit 2 (ascl:1102.011), is available.
Using a combination of self-consistent and test-particle techniques, Identikit 1 (ascl:1011.001) provided a way to vary the initial geometry of a galactic collision and instantly visualize the outcome. Identikit 2 uses the same techniques to define a mapping from the current morphology and kinematics of a tidal encounter back to the initial conditions. By requiring that various regions along a tidal feature all originate from a single disc with a unique orientation, this mapping can be used to derive the initial collision geometry. In addition, Identikit 2 offers a robust way to measure how well a particular model reproduces the morphology and kinematics of a pair of interacting galaxies. A set of eight self-consistent simulations is used to demonstrate the algorithm's ability to search a ten-dimensional parameter space and find near-optimal matches; all eight systems are successfully reconstructed.
IDG (Image Domain Gridding) is an imager that makes w-term corrections and a-term corrections computationally very cheap. It works with WSClean (ascl:1408.023) and supports the same cleaning and data selections options that WSClean offers in normal mode (such as cotton-schwab, multi-frequency multi-scale cleaning, and auto-masking). IDG also allows gridding with a time-variable beam including the LOFAR, AARTFAAC and MWA beam and can perform full beam or differential correction. The code requires measurement sets with four polarizations (e.g. XX/XY/YX/YY), can apply a spatially varying time-variable TEC term that can additionally be different for different antennas and output channels, and performs extremely well on GPUs.
Spectrum created by energy release in the early Universe, before recombination, creates distortions which are a superposition of μ-type, y-type and intermediate-type distortions. The final spectrum can thus be constructed from the templates, once energy injection rate as a function of redshift is known. This package contains the templates spaced at dy=0.001 for y<1 and dy=0.01 for y>1 covering a range 0.001 < y < 10. Also included is a Mathematica code which can combine these templates for user-defined rate of energy injection as a function of redshift. Silk damping, particle decay and annihilation examples are also included.
IEHI, written in Fortran, outputs a simple "coronal" ionization equilibrium (i.e., collisional ionization and auto-ionization balanced by radiative and dielectronic recombination) for a plasma at a given electron temperature.
iFIT determines the Sérsic law model for galaxies with imperfect Sérsic law profiles by searching for the best match between the observationally determined and theoretically expected radial variation of the mean surface brightness and light growth curve. The technique ensures quick convergence to a unique solution for both perfect and imperfect Sérsic profiles, even shallow and resolution-degraded SBPs. iFIT allows for correction of PSF convolution effects, offering the user the option of choosing between a Moffat, Gaussian, or user-supplied PSF, and is an efficient tool for the non-supervised structural characterization of large galaxy samples, such as those expected to become available with Euclid and LSST.
IFrIT (Ionization FRont Interactive Tool) is a powerful general purpose visualization tool that can be used to visualize 3-dimensional data sets. IFrIT is written in C++ and is based on the Visualization ToolKit (VTK) and, optionally, uses a GUI toolkit Qt. IFrIT can visualize scalar, vector field, tensor, and particle data. Several visualization windows can exist at the same time, each one having a full set of visualization objects. Some visualization windows can share the data between them, while other windows can be fully independent. Images from several visualization windows can be combined into one image file on the disk, tiling some windows together, and inserting reduced versions of some windows into larger other windows. A large array of features is also available, including highly advanced animation capabilities, a complex set of lights, markers to label various points in space, and a capability to "pick" a point in the scene and retrieve information about the data at this location.
IFSFIT is a general-purpose IDL library for fitting the continuum, emission lines, and absorption lines in integral field spectra. It uses PPXF (ascl:1210.002) to find the best fit stellar continuum (using a user-defined library of stellar templates and including additive polynomials), or optionally a user-defined method to find the best fit continuum. It uses MPFIT (ascl:1208.019) to simultaneously fit Gaussians to any number of emission lines and emission line velocity components. It will also fit the NaI D feature using analytic absorption and/or emission-line profiles.
IFSRED is a general-purpose library for reducing data from integral field spectrographs (IFSs). For a general IFS data cube, it contains IDL routines to: (1) find and apply a zero-point shift in a wavelength solution on a spaxel-by-spaxel basis, using sky lines; (2) find the spatial coordinates of a flux peak; (3) empirically correct for differential atmospheric refraction; (4) mosaic dithered exposures; (5) (integer) rebin; and (6) apply a telluric correction. A sky-subtraction routine for data from the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph and Imager (GMOS) that can be easily modified for any instrument is also included. IFSRED also contains additional software specific to reducing data from GMOS and the Gemini Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS).
We present a suite of IDL routines to interactively run GALFIT whereby the various surface brightness profiles (and their associated parameters) are represented by regions, which the User is expected to place. The regions may be saved and/or loaded from the ASCII format used by ds9 or in the Hierarchical Data Format (version 5). The software has been tested to run stably on Mac OS X and Linux with IDL 7.0.4. In addition to its primary purpose of modeling galaxy images with GALFIT, this package has several ancillary uses, including a flexible image display routines, several basic photometry functions, and qualitatively assessing Source Extractor. We distribute the package freely and without any implicit or explicit warranties, guarantees, or assurance of any kind. We kindly ask users to report any bugs, errors, or suggestions to us directly (as opposed to fixing them themselves) to ensure version control and uniformity.
This document describes the publically available numerical code "IGMtransfer", capable of performing intergalactic radiative transfer (RT) of light in the vicinity of the Lyman alpha (Lya) line. Calculating the RT in a (possibly adaptively refined) grid of cells resulting from a cosmological simulation, the code returns 1) a "transmission function", showing how the intergalactic medium (IGM) affects the Lya line at a given redshift, and 2) the "average transmission" of the IGM, making it useful for studying the results of reionization simulations.
IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.
IIPImage is an advanced high-performance feature-rich image server system that enables online access to full resolution floating point (as well as other bit depth) images at terabyte scales. Paired with the VisiOmatic (ascl:1408.010) celestial image viewer, the system can comfortably handle gigapixel size images as well as advanced image features such as both 8, 16 and 32 bit depths, CIELAB colorimetric images and scientific imagery such as multispectral images. Streaming is tile-based, which enables viewing, navigating and zooming in real-time around gigapixel size images. Source images can be in either TIFF or JPEG2000 format. Whole images or regions within images can also be rapidly and dynamically resized and exported by the server from a single source image without the need to store multiple files in various sizes.
IllinoisGRMHD is an open-source, highly-extensible rewrite of the original closed-source general relativistic (ideal) magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) code of the Illinois Numerical Relativity (ILNR) Group. Reducing the learning curve was the primary focus of this rewrite, with the goal of facilitating community involvement in the code's use and development, as well as reducing the human effort necessary to generate new science. IllinoisGRMHD also saves computer time, generating roundoff-precision identical output to the original code on adaptive-mesh grids while being nearly twice as fast at scales of hundreds to thousands of cores.
im2shape is a Bayesian approach to the problem of accurate measurement of galaxy ellipticities for weak lensing studies, in particular cosmic shear. im2shape parameterizes galaxies as sums of Gaussians, convolved with a psf which is also a sum of Gaussians. The uncertainties in the output parameters are calculated using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach.
Im3shape forward-fits a galaxy model to each data image it is supplied with and reports the parameters of the best fitting model, including the ellipticity components. It uses the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) to render images of convolved galaxy profiles, calculates the maximum likelihood parameter values, and corrects for noise bias. IM3SHAPE is a modular C code with a significant amount of Python glue code to enable setting up new models and their options automatically.
ImageHealth (IH) is a c program that makes use of standard CFITSIO routines to examine, in an automated fashion, .FITS images with any number of extensions, find objects within those images, and determine basic parameters of those images (stellar flux, background counts, FWHM, and ellipticity, along with sky background counts) in order to provide a snapshot of the quality of those images. A variety of python wrappers have also been written to test large numbers of such images and compare the results of ImageHealth to other image analysis programs, such as SourceExtractor. Additional IH-related tools will be made available in the future.
Efforts are now focused on an implementation of IH specifically for the Dark Energy Camera; we do not envision providing support for the instrument-independent version of the code offered here though comments, questions, and feedback are welcome.
ImageJ is a public domain Java image processing program inspired by NIH Image. It can display, edit, analyze, process, save and print 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit images. It can read many image formats including TIFF, GIF, JPEG, BMP, DICOM, FITS and "raw". It supports "stacks", a series of images that share a single window. It is multithreaded, so time-consuming operations such as image file reading can be performed in parallel with other operations.
IMAGINE (Interstellar MAGnetic field INference Engine) performs inference on generic parametric models of the Galaxy. The modular open source framework uses highly optimized tools and technology such as the MultiNest sampler (ascl:1109.006) and the information field theory framework NIFTy (ascl:1302.013) to create an instance of the Milky Way based on a set of parameters for physical observables, using Bayesian statistics to judge the mismatch between measured data and model prediction. The flexibility of the IMAGINE framework allows for simple refitting for newly available data sets and makes state-of-the-art Bayesian methods easily accessible particularly for random components of the Galactic magnetic field.
The IMCAT software was developed initially to do faint galaxy photometry for weak lensing studies, and provides a fairly complete set of tools for this kind of work. Unlike most packages for doing data analysis, the tools are standalone unix commands which you can invoke from the shell, via shell scripts or from perl scripts. The tools are arranges in a tree of directories. One main branch is the ’imtools’. These deal only with fits files. The most important imtool is the ’image calculator’ ’ic’ which allows one to do rather general operations on fits images. A second branch is the ’catools’ which operate only on catalogues. The key cattool is ’lc’; this effectively defines the format of IMCAT catalogues, and allows one to do very general operations on and filtering of such catalogues. A third branch is the ’imcattools’. These tend to be much more specialised than the cattools and imcattools and are focussed on faint galaxy photometry.
IMCOM allows for careful treatment of aliasing in undersampled imaging data and can be used to test the feasibility of multi-exposure observing strategies for space-based survey missions. IMCOM can also been used to explore focal plane undersampling for an optical space mission such as Euclid.
Imfit is an open-source astronomical image-fitting program specialized for galaxies but potentially useful for other sources, which is fast, flexible, and highly extensible. Its object-oriented design allows new types of image components (2D surface-brightness functions) to be easily written and added to the program. Image functions provided with Imfit include Sersic, exponential, and Gaussian galaxy decompositions along with Core-Sersic and broken-exponential profiles, elliptical rings, and three components that perform line-of-sight integration through 3D luminosity-density models of disks and rings seen at arbitrary inclinations.
Available minimization algorithms include Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead simplex, and Differential Evolution, allowing trade-offs between speed and decreased sensitivity to local minima in the fit landscape. Minimization can be done using the standard chi^2 statistic (using either data or model values to estimate per-pixel Gaussian errors, or else user-supplied error images) or the Cash statistic; the latter is particularly appropriate for cases of Poisson data in the low-count regime.
The C++ source code for Imfit is available under the GNU Public License.
This software trains artificial neural networks to find non-linear functionals of data that maximize Fisher information: information maximizing neural networks (IMNNs). As compressing large data sets vastly simplifies both frequentist and Bayesian inference, important information may be inadvertently missed. Likelihood-free inference based on automatically derived IMNN summaries produces summaries that are good approximations to sufficient statistics. IMNNs are robustly capable of automatically finding optimal, non-linear summaries of the data even in cases where linear compression fails: inferring the variance of Gaussian signal in the presence of noise, inferring cosmological parameters from mock simulations of the Lyman-α forest in quasar spectra, and inferring frequency-domain parameters from LISA-like detections of gravitational waveforms. In this final case, the IMNN summary outperforms linear data compression by avoiding the introduction of spurious likelihood maxima.
ImpactModel, written in Cython, computes the accretion disc impact spectrum at given frequencies and can compute other model quantities as a function of time.
Aperture masking interferometric data analysis involves measuring phases and amplitudes of fringes formed by interference between holes in the pupil mask. These fringe observables can be measured by computing an analytic model of the point spread function and fitting the relevant set of spatial frequencies directly in the image plane, without recourse to numerical Fourier transforms. The ImPlaneIA pipeline converts aperture masking images to fringe observables by fitting fringes in the image plane, calibrates data from a target of interest with one or more point source calibrators, and contains some basic model-fitting routines. The pipeline can accept different mask geometries, instruments, and observing modes.
This program measures line-strength indices in fully calibrated FITS spectra. By "fully calibrated" one should understand wavelength and relative flux-calibrated data. Note that the different types of line-strength indices that can be measured with indexf (see below) do not require absolute flux calibration. If even a relative flux-calibration is absent (or deficient), the derived indices should be transformed to an appropriate spectrophotometric system. The program can also compute index errors resulting from the propagation of random errors (e.g. photon statistics, read-out noise). This option is only available if the user provides the error spectrum as an additional input FITS file to indexf. The error spectrum must contain the unbiased standard deviation (and not the variance!) for each pixel of the data spectrum. In addition, indexf also estimates the effect of errors on radial velocity. For this purpose, the program performs Monte Carlo simulations by measuring each index using randomly drawn radial velocities (following a Gaussian distribution of a given standard deviation). If no error file is employed, the program can perform numerical simulations with synthetic error spectra, the latter generated from the original data spectra and assuming randomly generated S/N ratios.
Indri models the population of single (not in binary or hierarchical systems) neutron stars. Given a starting distribution of parameters (birth place, velocity, magnetic field, and period), the code moves a set of stars through the time (by evolving spin period and magnetic field) and the space (by propagating through the Galactic potential). Upon completion of the evolution, a set of observables is computed (radio flux, position, dispersion measure) and compared with a radio survey such as the Parkes Multibeam Survey. The models' parameters are optimised by using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique.
The efficiency of thin disk accretion onto black holes depends on the inner boundary condition, specifically the torque applied to the disk at the last stable orbit. This is usually assumed to vanish. This code estimates the torque on a magnetized disk using a steady magnetohydrodynamic inflow model originally developed by Takahashi et al. The efficiency e can depart significantly from the classical thin disk value. In some cases e > 1, i.e., energy is extracted from the black hole.
Infall is a code for calculating the mean initial and final density profiles around a virialized dark matter halo. The initial profile is derived from the statistics of the initial Gaussian random field, accounting for the problem of peaks within peaks using the extended Press-Schechter model. Spherical collapse then yields the typical density and velocity profiles of the gas and dark matter that surrounds the final, virialized halo. In additional to the mean profile, ±1-σ profiles are calculated and can be used as an estimate of the scatter.
Inflation is a numerical code to generate power spectra and other observables through numerical solutions to flow equations. The code generates tensor and scalar power spectra as a function of wavenumber and various other parameters at specific wavenumbers of interest (such as for CMB, scalar perturbations at smaller scales, gravitational wave detection at direct detection frequencies). The output can be easily ported to publicly available Markov Chain codes to constrain cosmological parameters with data.
The inhomog library provides Raychaudhuri integration of cosmological domain-wise average scale factor evolution using an analytical formula for kinematical backreaction Q_D evolution. The inhomog main program illustrates biscale examples. The library routine lib/Omega_D_precalc.c is callable by RAMSES (ascl:1011.007) using the RAMSES extension ramses-scalav.
InitialConditions finds the initial series solutions for perturbations in our Universe. This includes all scalar (1 adiabatic, 4 isocurvature and 2 magnetic modes), vector (1 vorticity mode, 1 magnetic mode), and tensor (1 gravitational wave mode and 1 magnetic mode) perturbations including terms up to second order in the neutrino mass. It can handle the standard species (cdm, baryons, photons), and two neutrino mass eigenstates (1 light, 1 heavy).
intensitypower measures and models the auto- and cross-power spectrum multipoles of galaxy catalogs and radio intensity maps presented in spherical coordinates. It can also convert the multipoles to power spectrum wedges P(k,mu) and 2D power spectra P(k_perp,k_par). The code assumes the galaxy catalog is a set of discrete points and the radio intensity map is a pixelized continuous field which includes angular pixelization using healpix, binning in redshift channels, smoothing by a Gaussian telescope beam, and the addition of a Gaussian noise in each cell. The galaxy catalog and radio intensity map are transferred onto an FFT grid, and power spectrum multipoles are measured including curved-sky effects. Both maps include redshift-space distortions.
We describe a novel approach to accelerating Monte Carlo Markov Chains. Our focus is cosmological parameter estimation, but the algorithm is applicable to any problem for which the likelihood surface is a smooth function of the free parameters and computationally expensive to evaluate. We generate a high-order interpolating polynomial for the log-likelihood using the first points gathered by the Markov chains as a training set. This polynomial then accurately computes the majority of the likelihoods needed in the latter parts of the chains. We implement a simple version of this algorithm as a patch (InterpMC) to CosmoMC and show that it accelerates parameter estimatation by a factor of between two and four for well-converged chains. The current code is primarily intended as a "proof of concept", and we argue that there is considerable room for further performance gains. Unlike other approaches to accelerating parameter fits, we make no use of precomputed training sets or special choices of variables, and InterpMC is almost entirely transparent to the user.
The Beta Inverse code solves the inverse cumulative density function (CDF) of a Beta distribution, allowing one to sample from the Beta prior directly. The Beta distribution is well suited as a prior for the distribution of the orbital eccentricities of extrasolar planets; imposing a Beta prior on orbital eccentricity is valuable for any type of observation of an exoplanet where eccentricity can affect the model parameters (e.g. transits, radial velocities, microlensing, direct imaging). The Beta prior is an excellent description of the current, empirically determined distribution of orbital eccentricities and thus employing it naturally incorporates an observer’s prior experience of what types of orbits are probable or improbable. The default parameters in the code are currently set to the Beta distribution which best describes the entire population of exoplanets with well-constrained orbits.
InversionKit is an interactive Java program that performs rotational and structural linear inversions from frequency data.
ionFR calculates the amount of ionospheric Faraday rotation for a specific epoch, geographic location, and line-of-sight. The code uses a number of publicly available, GPS-derived total electron content maps and the most recent release of the International Geomagnetic Reference Field. ionFR can be used for the calibration of radio polarimetric observations; its accuracy had been demonstrated using LOFAR pulsar observations.
ipole is a ray-tracing code for covariant, polarized radiative transport particularly useful for modeling Event Horizon Telescope sources, though may also be used for other relativistic transport problems. The code extends the ibothros scheme for covariant, unpolarized transport using two representations of the polarized radiation field: in the coordinate frame, it parallel transports the coherency tensor, and in the frame of the plasma, it evolves the Stokes parameters under emission, absorption, and Faraday conversion. The transport step is as spacetime- and coordinate- independent as possible; the emission, absorption, and Faraday conversion step is implemented using an analytic solution to the polarized transport equation with constant coefficients. As a result, ipole is stable, efficient, and produces a physically reasonable solution even for a step with high optical depth and Faraday depth.
The IRACpm R package applies a 7-8 order distortion correction to IRAC astrometric data from the Spitzer Space Telescope and includes a function for measuring apparent proper motions between different Epochs. These corrections are applicable only to positions measured by APEX; cryogenic images benefit from a correction for varying intra-pixel sensitivity prior to the application of the distortion.
IRACproc is a software suite that facilitates the co-addition of dithered or mapped Spitzer/IRAC data to make them ready for further analysis with application to a wide variety of IRAC observing programs. The software runs within PDL, a numeric extension for Perl available from pdl.perl.org, and as stand alone perl scripts. In acting as a wrapper for the Spitzer Science Center's MOPEX software, IRACproc improves the rejection of cosmic rays and other transients in the co-added data. In addition, IRACproc performs (optional) Point Spread Function (PSF) fitting, subtraction, and masking of saturated stars.
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